Cross-reactivity

cross-reactcross-reactionscross-reactivecross-reactionallergen cross-reactivityCross reactionscross reactivitycross-immunitycross-protectivecross-reacting
Cross-reactivity, in a general sense, is the reactivity of an observed agent which initiates reactions outside the main reaction expected.wikipedia
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Antigen

antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
In immunology, the cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from the immunogen.
In most cases, an adapted antibody can only react to and bind one specific antigen; in some instances, however, antibodies may cross-react and bind more than one antigen.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
In immunology, the cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from the immunogen.

Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants

Such cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) are an issue in allergy diagnosis, where about a fifth of all patients displays IgE antibodies against Asn-linked oligosaccharides (N-glycans) containing core α1,3-linked fucose.
The terms CCD or CCDs describe protein-linked carbohydrate structures responsible for the phenomenon of cross-reactivity of sera from allergic patients towards a wide range of allergens from plants and insects.

Latex fixation test

latex agglutinationlatex agglutination testlatex
An example of confounding that yields a false positive error is in a latex fixation test when agglutination occurs with another antigen rather than the antigen of interest.
Instances of cross-reactivity (where the antibody sticks to another antigen besides the antigen of interest) can lead to confusing results.

Pro-hevein

HeveinHevein (protein)
Hevein-like protein domains are a possible cause for allergen cross-reactivity between latex and banana.
Therefore it is a possible cause for allergen cross-reactivity between latex and banana or other fruits like chestnuts or avocadoes.

Immunohistochemistry

immunohistochemicalhistochemistryimmunohistochemical staining
Tissue cross reactivity assay is a standard method based on immunohistochemistry, required prior to phase I human study for therapeutic antibodies.
Endogenous biotin or reporter enzymes or primary/secondary antibody cross-reactivity are common causes of strong background staining, while weak staining may be caused by poor enzyme activity or primary antibody potency.

Immunogenicity

immunogenicelicit an immune responseimmune response
In immunology, the cross-reactivity has a more narrow meaning of the reaction between an antibody and an antigen that differs from the immunogen.

Orthomyxoviridae

influenza virusinfluenza virusesflu virus
A few examples of cross-reactivity have been confirmed in humans, one of which involves influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell and hepatitis C virus antigens.

CD8

CD8 + CD8+CD8B
A few examples of cross-reactivity have been confirmed in humans, one of which involves influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell and hepatitis C virus antigens.

T cell

T cellsT-cellT-cells
A few examples of cross-reactivity have been confirmed in humans, one of which involves influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell and hepatitis C virus antigens.

Hepacivirus C

hepatitis C virusHCVhepatitis C
A few examples of cross-reactivity have been confirmed in humans, one of which involves influenza virus-specific CD8+ T cell and hepatitis C virus antigens.

Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
An adaptive immune response is specific to the antigen that stimulated it (called the immunogen).

Macromolecule

macromoleculesmacromolecularmacromolecular chemistry
However, many naturally occurring apparent antigens are actually a mixture of macromolecules (for example, from pathogens, toxins, proteins, or pollen) comprising several epitopes.

Pathogen

pathogenspathogenicpathogenicity
However, many naturally occurring apparent antigens are actually a mixture of macromolecules (for example, from pathogens, toxins, proteins, or pollen) comprising several epitopes.

Toxin

toxinstoxicbiotoxin
However, many naturally occurring apparent antigens are actually a mixture of macromolecules (for example, from pathogens, toxins, proteins, or pollen) comprising several epitopes.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
However, many naturally occurring apparent antigens are actually a mixture of macromolecules (for example, from pathogens, toxins, proteins, or pollen) comprising several epitopes.

Pollen

exinepollen grainmicrosporogenesis
However, many naturally occurring apparent antigens are actually a mixture of macromolecules (for example, from pathogens, toxins, proteins, or pollen) comprising several epitopes.

Epitope

epitopesantigenic determinantantigenic determinants
However, many naturally occurring apparent antigens are actually a mixture of macromolecules (for example, from pathogens, toxins, proteins, or pollen) comprising several epitopes.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Contact with a complex antigen such as a virus will stimulate multiple immune responses to the virus' different macromolecules as well as the individual epitopes of each macromolecule.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
Contact with a complex antigen such as a virus will stimulate multiple immune responses to the virus' different macromolecules as well as the individual epitopes of each macromolecule.

Tetanus

lockjawObstetrical tetanusTetanus neonatorum
For example, the tetanus toxin is a single protein macromolecular antigen but will stimulate many immune responses due to the tertiary structure of the protein yielding many different epitopes.

Protein tertiary structure

tertiary structuretertiary structuresthree-dimensional structure
For example, the tetanus toxin is a single protein macromolecular antigen but will stimulate many immune responses due to the tertiary structure of the protein yielding many different epitopes.

Denaturation (biochemistry)

denaturationdenatureddenature
Denaturing the protein may 'disarm' its function but allow the immune system to have an immune response thus creating an immunity without harming the patient.

Medical test

diagnostic testdiagnostic testsdiagnostic testing
In medical tests, including rapid diagnostic tests, cross-reactivity can be either confounding or helpful, depending on the instance.

Rapid diagnostic test

rapidLaboratory DiagnosticsRapid diagnostic test (RDT)
In medical tests, including rapid diagnostic tests, cross-reactivity can be either confounding or helpful, depending on the instance.