Croup

laryngotracheobronchitisobstructive laryngitiscynanche trachealis
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.wikipedia
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Stridor

abnormal breath soundsinspiratory stridorupper airway obstruction
The infection leads to swelling inside the trachea, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classic symptoms of "barking" cough, stridor, and a hoarse voice.
Inspiratory stridor often occurs in children with croup.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
In more severe cases inhaled epinephrine may also be used.
Inhaled adrenaline may be used to improve the symptoms of croup.

Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flu
Many cases of croup are preventable by immunization for influenza and diphtheria. Other viral causes include influenza A and B, measles, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that are a common cause of respiratory infections in children such as croup, but can also cause a disease similar to influenza in adults.

Human parainfluenza viruses

parainfluenzaparainfluenza virushuman parainfluenza virus
Croup can be caused by a number of viruses including parainfluenza and influenza virus. Viral croup or acute laryngotracheitis is most commonly caused by parainfluenza virus (a member of the paramyxovirus family), primarily types 1 and 2, in 75% of cases.
HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 have been demonstrated to be the principal causative agent behind croup (laryngotracheobronchitis), which is a viral disease of the upper airway and is mainly problematic in children aged 6–48 months of age.

Laryngitis

Chronic laryngitislaryngotracheitisAcute laryngitis
Others use the term more broadly, to include acute laryngotracheitis, spasmodic croup, laryngeal diphtheria, bacterial tracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, and laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis.
Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include epiglottitis, croup, inhaling a foreign body, and laryngeal cancer.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
Other viral causes include influenza A and B, measles, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Complications of measles are relatively common, ranging from mild ones such as diarrhea to serious ones such as pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia), laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) (either direct viral laryngotracheobronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis), otitis media, acute brain inflammation (and very rarely subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), and corneal ulceration (leading to corneal scarring).

Trachea

windpipetrachealtracheae
The infection leads to swelling inside the trachea, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classic symptoms of "barking" cough, stridor, and a hoarse voice.
An inflammatory condition, also involving the larynx and bronchi, called croup can result in a barking cough.

Cough

coughingdry coughproductive cough
The infection leads to swelling inside the trachea, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classic symptoms of "barking" cough, stridor, and a hoarse voice.
A barky cough is part of the common presentation of croup.

Common cold

coldcoldsnasopharyngitis
Other symptoms include fever, coryza (symptoms typical of the common cold), and indrawing of the chest wall–known as Hoover's sign.
In young children when it affects the trachea it may produce the symptoms of croup due to the small size of their airways.

Dexamethasone

Decadrondexamethasone phosphateOradexon
Corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone and budesonide, have been shown to improve outcomes in children with all severities of croup.
It is used in the treatment of many conditions, including rheumatic problems, a number of skin diseases, severe allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, croup, brain swelling, and along with antibiotics in tuberculosis.

Paramyxoviridae

paramyxovirusparamyxoviruseshemagglutinin
Viral croup or acute laryngotracheitis is most commonly caused by parainfluenza virus (a member of the paramyxovirus family), primarily types 1 and 2, in 75% of cases.
HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 may cause cold-like symptoms, along with croup in children.

Adenoviridae

adenovirusadenovirusesadenoviral
Other viral causes include influenza A and B, measles, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Adenovirus infections often show up as conjunctivitis, tonsillitis (which may look exactly like strep throat and cannot be distinguished from strep except by throat culture), an ear infection, or croup.

Retropharyngeal abscess

Retropharyngeal
The first step is to exclude other obstructive conditions of the upper airway, especially epiglottitis, an airway foreign body, subglottic stenosis, angioedema, retropharyngeal abscess, and bacterial tracheitis.
Signs and symptoms may include stiff neck (limited neck mobility or torticollis), some form of palpable neck pain (may be in "front of the neck" or around the Adam's Apple), malaise, difficulty swallowing, fever, stridor, drooling, croup-like cough or enlarged cervical lymph nodes.

Diphtheria

diphteriadiptheriaDiphthera
Many cases of croup are preventable by immunization for influenza and diphtheria.
This can block the airway and create a barking cough as in croup.

Tracheitis

bacterial tracheitislaryngotracheitis
Others use the term more broadly, to include acute laryngotracheitis, spasmodic croup, laryngeal diphtheria, bacterial tracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis, and laryngotracheobronchopneumonitis. The first step is to exclude other obstructive conditions of the upper airway, especially epiglottitis, an airway foreign body, subglottic stenosis, angioedema, retropharyngeal abscess, and bacterial tracheitis.
It is occasionally confused with croup.

Heliox

helium-oxygenHeliox (gas)Helitrox
There is tentative evidence that breathing heliox (a mixture of helium and oxygen) to decrease the work of breathing is useful in those with severe disease.
There is also some use of heliox in conditions of the medium airways (croup, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Steeple sign

A frontal X-ray of the neck is not routinely performed, but if it is done, it may show a characteristic narrowing of the trachea, called the steeple sign, because of the subglottic stenosis, which resembles a steeple in shape.
The presence of the steeple sign supports a diagnosis of croup, usually caused by paramyxoviruses.

Tracheal intubation

endotracheal intubationintubationintubated
With treatment, less than 0.2% of children require endotracheal intubation.
158 of these were performed for the treatment of croup, and 11 were performed for "chronic maladies of the larynx".

Respiratory tract infection

respiratory infectionrespiratory infectionsrespiratory tract infections
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.

Hoarse voice

dysphoniahoarsenessvoice changes
The infection leads to swelling inside the trachea, which interferes with normal breathing and produces the classic symptoms of "barking" cough, stridor, and a hoarse voice.

Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
Other symptoms include fever, coryza (symptoms typical of the common cold), and indrawing of the chest wall–known as Hoover's sign. Fever and runny nose may also be present.

Orthomyxoviridae

influenza virusinfluenza virusesflu virus
Croup can be caused by a number of viruses including parainfluenza and influenza virus.

Pathogenic bacteria

bacterial infectionbacterial infectionsbacterial
Rarely is it due to a bacterial infection.

Epiglottitis

glottic edema
The first step is to exclude other obstructive conditions of the upper airway, especially epiglottitis, an airway foreign body, subglottic stenosis, angioedema, retropharyngeal abscess, and bacterial tracheitis. Croup is typically diagnosed based on signs and symptoms after potentially more severe causes, such as epiglottitis or an airway foreign body, have been ruled out.