Crowdfunding

crowdfundedcrowd fundingcrowdfundcrowd-fundingcrowd-fundedcrowd fundedCivic crowdfundingCrowdfundercrowd fundcrowd-funding campaign
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.wikipedia
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Alternative finance

alternativesalternative conduits
Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance.
Examples of alternative financing activities through 'online marketplaces' are reward-based crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding, revenue-based financing, online lenders, peer-to-peer consumer and business lending, and invoice trading third party payment platforms.

Social entrepreneurship

social entrepreneursocial entrepreneurssocial
Crowdfunding has been used to fund a wide range of for-profit, entrepreneurial ventures such as artistic and creative projects, medical expenses, travel, and community-oriented social entrepreneurship projects.
These websites enable social entrepreneurs to reach numerous people who are not geographically close yet who share the same goals and encourage them to collaborate online, learn about the issues, disseminate information about the group's events and activities, and raise funds through crowdfunding.

ArtistShare

ArtistShare.com
The first company to engage in this business model was the U.S. website ArtistShare (2001).
ArtistShare is the internet's first crowdfunding website.

Marillion

In The Last Waking Moments
The first noteworthy instance of online crowdfunding in the music industry was in 1997, when fans underwrote an entire U.S. tour for the British rock band Marillion, raising US$60,000 in donations by means of a fan-based Internet campaign.
Despite unpopularity in the mainstream media and a consistently unfashionable status within the British music industry, Marillion have maintained a very loyal international fanbase, becoming widely acknowledged as playing a pioneering role in the development of crowdfunding and fan-funded music.

GoFundMe

Go Fund Mego fund me pageGo-Fund-Me
As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva (2005), IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), GoFundMe (2010), Microventures (2010), and YouCaring (2011).
GoFundMe is an American for-profit crowdfunding platform that allows people to raise money for events ranging from life events such as celebrations and graduations to challenging circumstances like accidents and illnesses.

Kickstarter

Kickstarter.comkick starterKickstarter campaign
As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva (2005), IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), GoFundMe (2010), Microventures (2010), and YouCaring (2011).
Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity and merchandising.

Equity crowdfunding

Crowdfunding Equity-based crowdfundingequity funding
Equity crowdfunding is the collective effort of individuals to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations through the provision of finance in the form of equity.
Because equity crowdfunding involves investment into a commercial enterprise, it is often subject to securities and financial regulation.

Mark Tapio Kines

In the film industry, independent writer/director Mark Tapio Kines designed a website in 1997 for his then-unfinished first feature film Foreign Correspondents.
Kines is perhaps best known for being the first filmmaker to employ crowdfunding to partially finance a film.

Blender (software)

BlenderBlender 3DSuzanne
The campaign aimed for open-sourcing the Blender 3D computer graphics software by collecting €100,000 from the community while offering additional benefits for donating members.
On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started the "Free Blender" campaign, a crowdfunding precursor.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsInitial Coin Offerings (ICOs)
Another kind of crowdfunding is to raise funds for a project where a digital or software-based value token is offered as a reward to funders which is known as Initial coin offering (abbreviated to ICO).
It is often a form of crowdfunding, however a private ICOs which does not seek public investment is also possible.

Subscription (finance)

public subscriptionsubscriptionsubscriptions
Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes.
Praenumeration is similar to the recent crowdfunding financing model.

Ethereum

EtherERC-20Ethereum Virtual Machine
Examples of such crowdsales are Augur decentralized, distributed prediction market software which raised US$4 million from more than 3500 participants; Ethereum blockchain; and "The DAO."
Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014.

The DAO (organization)

The DAODAO
Examples of such crowdsales are Augur decentralized, distributed prediction market software which raised US$4 million from more than 3500 participants; Ethereum blockchain; and "The DAO."
It launched in April 2016 after a crowdfunding campaign.

Crowdcube

For instance, CrowdCube and Seedrs are Internet platforms which enable small companies to issue shares over the Internet and receive small investments from registered users in return.
Crowdcube is a British investment crowdfunding platform, established by Darren Westlake and Luke Lang in 2011.

Crowdsourcing

crowdsourcedcrowd-sourcedcrowdsource
Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance.
Some common categories of crowdsourcing can be used effectively in the commercial world, including crowdvoting, crowdsolving, crowdfunding, microwork, creative crowdsourcing, crowdsource workforce management, and inducement prize contests.

The Age of Stupid

Age of Stupid, The
Franny Armstrong later created a donation system for her feature film The Age of Stupid.
The makers of The Age of Stupid were among the first to use the crowdfunding model and pioneered a new distribution system, Indie Screenings, which allows anyone, anywhere, to hold a screening of the film and keep the profits for themselves.

Chris Roberts (video game developer)

Chris RobertsChris Roberts (game developer)Cloud Imperium Games
As of 2015 the highest reported funding by a crowdfunded project to date was Star Citizen, an online space trading and combat video game being developed by Chris Roberts and Cloud Imperium Games; it had raised $77M by that time, and while it had a devoted fan base it was also criticized for being a potential scam.
He created the Wing Commander series while at Origin Systems and is now working on the crowdfunded space simulator Star Citizen.

Sellaband

Sellaband.com
Two years later, they became the fastest band to raise a US$50,000 budget on SellaBand.
Sellaband used the mechanisms of crowdfunding and was to be seen as a Direct-to-Fan/fan-funded music platform utilising a Threshold Pledge System / Provision Point Mechanism.

Star Citizen

Squadron 42Cloud Imperium GamesCloud Imperium Games Corporation
As of 2015 the highest reported funding by a crowdfunded project to date was Star Citizen, an online space trading and combat video game being developed by Chris Roberts and Cloud Imperium Games; it had raised $77M by that time, and while it had a devoted fan base it was also criticized for being a potential scam.
Development of the game began in 2011 led by director Chris Roberts, and is being mostly financed from a large crowdfunding campaign of over US$250 million.

Seedrs

For instance, CrowdCube and Seedrs are Internet platforms which enable small companies to issue shares over the Internet and receive small investments from registered users in return.
Seedrs was the first equity crowdfunding platform to receive regulatory approval from a financial regulator – the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA, formerly the FSA) in May 2012.

Mystery Science Theater 3000

MST3KSatellite of LoveMystery Science Theater 3000: The Return
In 2015, Hodgson led a crowdfunded revival of the series with 14 episodes in its eleventh season, first released on Netflix on April 14, 2017, with another six-episode season following on November 22, 2018.

Franny Armstrong

Franny Armstrong later created a donation system for her feature film The Age of Stupid.
Armstrong pioneered the use of crowdfunding for independent films and developed an innovative form of film distribution known as Indie Screenings.

Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act

JOBS ActJumpstart Our Business Startups Act (JOBS Act)JOBS Act of 2012
In the United States, legislation that is mentioned in the 2012 JOBS Act will allow for a wider pool of small investors with fewer restrictions following the implementation of the act.
The JOBS Act is also a welcome development for nonprofit organizations which operate crowd funding platforms for microfinance loans, such as Kiva and Zidisha.

Coolest Cooler

The Coolest Cooler is a multi-function cooler that was initially funded through the crowdfunding website Kickstarter.

RocketHub

Rockethub.com
Innovative new platforms, such as RocketHub, have emerged that combine traditional funding for creative work with branded crowdsourcing—helping artists and entrepreneurs unite with brands "without the need for a middle man."
RocketHub was an online crowdfunding platform launched in 2010.