Crowdfunding

crowdfundedcrowd fundingcrowdfundcrowd-fundingcrowd-fundedcrowd fundedcivic crowdfundingcrowd fundcrowd-funding campaigncrowd-sourced
Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet.wikipedia
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Alternative finance

alternative forms of financealternatives
Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance.
Examples of alternative financing activities through 'online marketplaces' are reward-based crowdfunding, equity crowdfunding, revenue-based financing, online lenders, peer-to-peer consumer and business lending, and invoice trading third party payment platforms.

Social entrepreneurship

social entrepreneursocial entrepreneursAshoka Fellow
Crowdfunding has been used to fund a wide range of for-profit, entrepreneurial ventures such as artistic and creative projects, medical expenses, travel, and community-oriented social entrepreneurship projects.
These websites enable social entrepreneurs to reach a large number of people who are not geographically close yet who share the same goals and encourage them to collaborate online, learn about the issues, disseminate information about the group's events and activities, and raise funds through crowdfunding.

ArtistShare

ArtistShare.com
Crowdfunding started to gain mainstream traction with the launch of ArtistShare (2003).
ArtistShare is the internet's first documented crowdfunding website.

Marillion

The first noteworthy instance of online crowdfunding in the music industry was in 1997, when fans underwrote an entire U.S. tour for the British rock band Marillion, raising US$60,000 in donations by means of a fan-based Internet campaign.
Despite unpopularity in the mainstream media and a consistently unfashionable status within the British music industry, Marillion have maintained a very loyal international fanbase, becoming widely acknowledged as playing a pioneering role in the development of crowdfunding and fan-funded music.

Kickstarter

kickstarter.comkick starterKickstarter campaign
As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva (2005), IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), GoFundMe (2010), Microventures (2010), and YouCaring (2011).
Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity and merchandising.

GoFundMe

go fund me pageGo-Fund-Me
As the model matured, more crowdfunding sites started to appear on the web such as Kiva (2005), IndieGoGo (2008), Kickstarter (2009), GoFundMe (2010), Microventures (2010), and YouCaring (2011).
GoFundMe is a for-profit crowdfunding platform that allows people to raise money for events ranging from life events such as celebrations and graduations to challenging circumstances like accidents and illnesses.

Mark Tapio Kines

In the film industry, independent writer/director Mark Tapio Kines designed a website in 1997 for his then-unfinished first feature film Foreign Correspondents.
Kines is perhaps best known for being the first filmmaker to employ crowdfunding to partially finance a film.

Equity crowdfunding

Crowdfunding Equity-based crowdfundingequity funding
2) Equity crowdfunding: the backer receives shares of a company, usually in its early stages, in exchange for the money pledged.
Because equity crowdfunding involves investment into a commercial enterprise, it is often subject to securities and financial regulation.

Blender (software)

BlenderBlender 3DSuzanne
The campaign aimed for open-sourcing the Blender 3D computer graphics software by collecting €100,000 from the community while offering additional benefits for donating members.
On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started the "Free Blender" campaign, a crowdfunding precursor.

Subscription (finance)

public subscriptionsubscriptionsubscriptions
Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes.
The business practice was particularly common with magazines, helping to determine in advance how many subscribers there would be. Praenumeration is similar to the recent crowdfunding financing model.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsICOs
Another kind of crowdfunding is to raise funds for a project where a digital or software-based value token is offered as a reward to funders which is known as Initial coin offering (abbreviated to ICO).
Mostly the process is done by crowdfunding but private ICO's are becoming more common.

Crowdsourcing

crowdsourcedcrowd-sourcedcrowdsource
Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance.
Some common categories of crowdsourcing can be used effectively in the commercial world, including crowdvoting, crowdsolving, crowdfunding, microwork, creative crowdsourcing, crowdsource workforce management, and inducement prize contests.

List of highest funded crowdfunding projects

highest funded film campaign on Indiegogohighest-funded crowdfunding projects106th most crowdfunded project of all time
Some of the largest crowdsales using tokens in 2017 were Tezos which raised, Bancor which raised and Status which raised.
This is an incomplete list of the highest-funded crowdfunding projects (including projects which failed to achieve funding).

Ethereum

EtherETHETH blockchain
Examples of such crowdsales are Augur decentralized, distributed prediction market software which raised from more than 3500 participants; Ethereum blockchain; Digix/DigixDAO;
Development was funded by an online crowdsale that took place between July and August 2014.

Crowdcube

For instance, CrowdCube and Seedrs are Internet platforms which enable small companies to issue shares over the Internet and receive small investments from registered users in return.
Crowdcube is a British investment crowdfunding platform.

The Age of Stupid

Age of Stupid, The
Franny Armstrong later created a donation system for her feature film The Age of Stupid.
The makers of The Age of Stupid were among the first to use the crowdfunding model and pioneered a new distribution system, Indie Screenings, which allows anyone, anywhere, to hold a screening of the film and keep the profits for themselves.

The DAO (organization)

The DAODAO
and "The DAO."
The DAO was crowdfunded via a token sale in May 2016.

Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act

JOBS ActJumpstart Our Business Startups Act (JOBS Act)JOBS Act of 2012
In the United States, legislation that is mentioned in the 2012 JOBS Act will allow for a wider pool of small investors with fewer restrictions following the implementation of the act.
The JOBS Act is also a welcome development for nonprofit organizations which operate crowd funding platforms for microfinance loans, such as Kiva and Zidisha.

Seedrs

For instance, CrowdCube and Seedrs are Internet platforms which enable small companies to issue shares over the Internet and receive small investments from registered users in return.
Seedrs was the first equity crowdfunding platform to receive regulatory approval from a financial regulator – the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA, formerly the FSA) in May 2012.

Chris Roberts (game developer)

Chris RobertsCloud Imperium GamesRoberts Space Industries
As of 2015 the highest reported funding by a crowdfunded project to date was Star Citizen, an online space trading and combat video game being developed by Chris Roberts and Cloud Imperium Games; it had raised $77M by that time, and while it had a devoted fan base it was also criticized for being a potential scam.
He created the Wing Commander series while at Origin Systems and is now working on the crowdfunded space simulator Star Citizen.

Franny Armstrong

Franny Armstrong later created a donation system for her feature film The Age of Stupid.
Armstrong pioneered the use of crowdfunding for independent films and developed an innovative form of film distribution known as Indie Screenings.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Although similar concepts can also be executed through mail-order subscriptions, benefit events, and other methods, the term crowdfunding refers to Internet-mediated registries.
Crowdfunding

RocketHub

Rockethub.com
Innovative new platforms, such as RocketHub, have emerged that combine traditional funding for creative work with branded crowdsourcing—helping artists and entrepreneurs unite with brands "without the need for a middle man."
RocketHub is an online crowdfunding platform launched in 2010.

Coolest Cooler

The "Coolest Cooler" raised a total of $13,285,226 from 62,642 backers. The cooler features a blender, waterproof Bluetooth speakers and an LED light.
The Coolest Cooler is a multi-function cooler that was initially funded through the crowdfunding website Kickstarter.

Praenumeration

Books have been crowdfunded for centuries: authors and publishers would advertise book projects in praenumeration or subscription schemes.
* Crowdfunding, 21st-century version