Crowdsourcing

crowdsourcedcrowd-sourcedcrowdsourcecrowd sourcingcrowd sourcedcrowd-sourcingcrowd-sourcecrowd sourcecrowdsourcesCrowdsourcing creative work
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services, including ideas and finances, from a large, relatively open and often rapidly-evolving group of internet users; it divides work between participants to achieve a cumulative result.wikipedia
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Amazon Mechanical Turk

Mechanical TurkAmazon's Mechanical TurkAmazon.com’s Mechanical Turk
Tedious "microtasks" performed in parallel by large, paid crowds (e.g. Amazon Mechanical Turk) are another form of crowdsourcing.
Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a crowdsourcing website for businesses (known as Requesters) to hire remotely located "crowdworkers" to perform discrete on-demand tasks that computers are currently unable to do.

Outsourcing

business process outsourcingoutsourcedoutsource
The word crowdsourcing itself is a portmanteau of crowd and outsourcing, and was coined in 2006.
Other options subsequently emerged: nearshoring, crowdsourcing, multisourcing, strategic alliances/strategic partnerships, strategic outsourcing.

Wired (magazine)

WiredWired MagazineWired News
The term "crowdsourcing" was coined in 2005 by Jeff Howe and Mark Robinson, editors at Wired, to describe how businesses were using the Internet to "outsource work to the crowd", which quickly led to the portmanteau "crowdsourcing".
The magazine coined the term crowdsourcing, as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products, videogames, and other nerdy tidbits pitched, promised and hyped, but never delivered".

Topcoder

Single Round MatchTopcoder, Inc.
Notable examples are Topcoder and its parent company Wipro.
Topcoder (formerly TopCoder) is a crowdsourcing company with an open global community of designers, developers, data scientists, and competitive programmers.

OpenStreetMap

OSMHumanitarian OpenStreetMap TeamOpen Street Map
OpenStreetMap is an example of crowdsourced mapping project.
This crowdsourced data is then made available under the Open Database License.

Crowdfunding

crowdfundedcrowd fundingcrowdfund
Some common categories of crowdsourcing can be used effectively in the commercial world, including crowdvoting, crowdsolving, crowdfunding, microwork, creative crowdsourcing, crowdsource workforce management, and inducement prize contests.
Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance.

Citizen sourcing

Crowdsourcing public policy and the production of public services is also referred to as citizen sourcing.
Citizen sourcing is a derivative of the term crowdsourcing.

Waze

real-time traffic software
Waze has the ability to direct users based on crowdsourced information.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services, including ideas and finances, from a large, relatively open and often rapidly-evolving group of internet users; it divides work between participants to achieve a cumulative result.

Microwork

microtaskingDigital sweatshopelemental activities
Some common categories of crowdsourcing can be used effectively in the commercial world, including crowdvoting, crowdsolving, crowdfunding, microwork, creative crowdsourcing, crowdsource workforce management, and inducement prize contests.
This crowdsourcing project was initiated by Amazon as a way for users to find duplicate webpages, and soon it became a service for individuals to contract computer programmers and other individuals to finish tasks that computers are unable to accomplish.

Threadless

Threadless.comthreadless.com
Threadless.com selects the T-shirts it sells by having users provide designs and vote on the ones they like, which are then printed and available for purchase.
In a 2006 Wired article, Jeff Howe coined the term crowdsourcing.

Citizen science

citizen scientistscitizen scientistcitizen-science
In recent years, citizen science projects have become increasingly focused providing benefits to scientific research.
Geno 2.0 expands the scope for citizen science, harnessing the power of the crowd to discover new details of human population history.

InnoCentive

Innocentive, Inc.Innocentive.com
The company InnoCentive is a crowdsourcing platform for corporate research and development where difficult scientific problems are posted for crowds of solvers to discover the answer and win a cash prize, which can range from $10,000 to $100,000 per challenge.
InnoCentive is an open innovation and crowdsourcing company with its worldwide headquarters in Waltham, MA and their EMEA headquarters in London, UK.

Crowdsourcing software development

Crowdsourcing approach to software development
Crowdsourcing approach to software development is used by a number of companies.
But in software crowdsourcing, all the tasks can be assigned to or are addressed by members of the general public.

Macrotasking

macrotasksMacrowork
Macrowork tasks typically have these characteristics: they can be done independently, they take a fixed amount of time, and they require special skills.

Aaron Koblin

Aaron Koblin
In his project called the Sheep Market, Aaron Koblin used Mechanical Turk to collect 10,000 drawings of sheep from contributors around the world.
Aaron Koblin (born January 14, 1982) is an American digital media artist and entrepreneur best known for his innovative use of data visualization and his pioneering work in crowdsourcing, virtual reality, and interactive film.

International Society of Genetic Genealogy

ISOGGThe International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG)
This includes support, organization, and dissemination of personal DNA (genetic) testing. Similar to amateur astronomy, citizen scientists encouraged by volunteer organizations like the International Society of Genetic Genealogy, have provided valuable information and research to the professional scientific community.
The broader ISOGG membership participated in the Genographic Project, a genetic anthropology study that used crowdsourcing to facilitate new discoveries about human genetic history, and other genetic databases where broader and larger databases aid the identification of participants' ancestral origins.

Virtual volunteering

online volunteersOnline volunteeringvolunteers
Social motivations are the rewards of behaving pro-socially, such as the altruistic motivations of online volunteers.
Online micro-volunteering is also an example of virtual volunteering and crowdsourcing, where volunteers undertake assignments via their PDAs or smartphones.

Panos Ipeirotis

Ipeirotis
A previous study in 2008 by Ipeirotis found that users at that time were primarily American, young, female, and well-educated, with 40% earning more than $40,000 per year.
He is known for his work on crowdsourcing (especially Amazon Mechanical Turk) and on integrating human and machine intelligence.

DARPA Network Challenge

DARPA balloon
Another example of competition-based crowdsourcing is the 2009 DARPA balloon experiment, where DARPA placed 10 balloon markers across the United States and challenged teams to compete to be the first to report the location of all the balloons.
Prior to the competition numerous people had discussed possible strategies, including satellite photography, aerial photography and crowdsourcing to detect balloons, as well as the possibility of misinformation campaigns to stop other teams from winning.

Crowdfind

Chicago-based startup Crowdfind, formerly "crowdfynd", uses a version of crowdsourcing best termed as crowdsearching, which differs from microwork in that no payment for taking part in the search is made.
It started as a crowdsourced mobile application, but grew into a Lost and Found management tool for businesses.

Spencer Wells

Spencer Wells, director of the Genographic Project blurb:
The focus was on Family History and DNA: Genetic Genealogy in 2013, where he was quoted as saying: Since 2005, the Genographic Project has used the latest genetic technology to expand our knowledge of the human story, and its pioneering use of DNA testing to engage and involve the public in the research effort has helped to create a new breed of "citizen scientist." Geno 2.0 expands the scope for citizen science, harnessing the power of the crowd to discover new details of human population history.

Genographic Project

The Genographic ProjectGeno 2.0 Next GenerationGenographic
Spencer Wells, director of the Genographic Project blurb:
Since 2005, the Genographic Project has used the latest genetic technology to expand our knowledge of the human story, and its pioneering use of DNA testing to engage and involve the public in the research effort has helped to create a new breed of "citizen scientist." Geno 2.0 expands the scope for citizen science, harnessing the power of the crowd to discover new details of human population history.

Open source

open-sourceopensourceopen
However, most of the crowdsourcing works are done by people who are paid or directly benefit from the outcome (e.g. most of open source projects working on Linux).
It also explains some instances of crowdsourcing, collaborative consumption, and open innovation.

Tag Challenge

A similar challenge was the Tag Challenge, funded by the US State Department, which required locating and photographing individuals in five cities in the US and Europe within 12 hours based only on a single photograph.
As such, the Tag Challenge is an example of crowdsourcing, an approach to accomplishing tasks by opening them to the public.