Crown land

crown landsroyal demesneroyal domaincrownlandCrownKronlandroyal landCrown EstateconstituentCrown Domain
Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.wikipedia
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The Crown

British CrownCrownAustralian Crown
Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.
The term is also found in various expressions such as "Crown land", which some countries refer to as "public land" or "state land"; as well as in some offices, such as minister of the Crown, Crown attorney, and Crown prosecutor.

Public land

public landsstate landpublic
Today, in Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia, crown land is considered public land and is apart from the monarch's private estate.
In several Commonwealth countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Canada, public lands are referred to as Crown lands.

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
In Britain, the hereditary revenues of Crown lands provided income for the monarch until the start of the reign of George III, when the profits from the Crown Estate were surrendered to the Parliament of Great Britain in return for a fixed civil list payment.
On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income; most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties.

Principality of Transylvania (1711–1867)

TransylvaniaPrincipality of TransylvaniaGrand Principality of Transylvania
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary (with the Principality of Transylvania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume became constituent parts of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania); ruled in real union with the remaining Austrian crown lands (officially: "The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council") of Cisleithania until the disintegration of the dual monarchy in 1918.
The Principality of Transylvania, from 1765 Grand Principality of Transylvania, was a realm of the Hungarian Crown and since 1804 an Austrian crownland ruled by the Habsburg and Habsburg-Lorraine monarchs of the Habsburg Monarchy (later Austrian Empire).

South Australia

SASouth AustralianSouth
In South Australia, the relevant Act is the Crown Land Management Act 2009.
Crown land held in right of South Australia is managed under the Crown Land Management Act 2009.

Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg EmpireHabsburgAustria
From the late 18th century onwards, the territories acquired by the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy were called crown lands (Kronländer).

Lands of the Bohemian Crown

Bohemian CrownCrown of BohemiaBohemia
The medieval European state of the Crown of Bohemia, which was an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, consisted of crown lands: Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Duchies of Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia.
The crown lands primarily consisted of the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of 1356, the Margraviate of Moravia, the Duchies of Silesia, and the two Lusatias, known as the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia and the Margraviate of Lower Lusatia, as well as other territories throughout its history.

Margraviate of Moravia

MoraviaMargrave of MoraviaMoravian
The medieval European state of the Crown of Bohemia, which was an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, consisted of crown lands: Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Duchies of Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia.
The Margraviate of Moravia (Markrabství moravské; Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918.

Imperial Council (Austria)

Imperial CouncilReichsratHerrenhaus
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary (with the Principality of Transylvania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume became constituent parts of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania); ruled in real union with the remaining Austrian crown lands (officially: "The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council") of Cisleithania until the disintegration of the dual monarchy in 1918.
In the course of the Revolutions of 1848, representatives from those crown lands of the Austrian Empire incorporated in the German Confederation met in a "Imperial Diet" at Vienna.

Cisleithania

AustrianCisleithania (Austria)Austria
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary (with the Principality of Transylvania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume became constituent parts of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania); ruled in real union with the remaining Austrian crown lands (officially: "The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council") of Cisleithania until the disintegration of the dual monarchy in 1918.
After the constitutional changes of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Cisleithanian crown lands (Kronländer) continued to constitute the Austrian Empire, but the latter term was rarely used to avoid confusion with the era before 1867, when the Kingdom of Hungary had been a constituent part of that empire.

Austrian Empire

AustrianAustriaAustrians
Initially ruled in personal union by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, they played a vital role as constituent lands of the Habsburg nation-building and were ultimately reorganised as administrative divisions of the centralised Austrian Empire established in 1804.

Real union

combined under the rulemore closely unifiedreal
After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary (with the Principality of Transylvania), the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume became constituent parts of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (Transleithania); ruled in real union with the remaining Austrian crown lands (officially: "The Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council") of Cisleithania until the disintegration of the dual monarchy in 1918.
The most notable example of such a move is the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen), which achieved equal status to Austria (which exercised control over the "Cisleithanian" crown lands) in Austria-Hungary following the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867.

Monarchy of Canada

Queen of CanadaCanadian monarchCanadian Royal Family
Within Canada, Crown Land is a designated territorial area belonging to the Canadian Crown. Though the monarch owns all Crown Land in the country, it is divided in parallel with the "division" of the Crown among the federal and provincial jurisdictions, so that some lands within the provinces are administered by the relevant provincial Crown, whereas others are under the federal Crown. However, through treaties between First Nations and the Crown in Right of Canada, the provincial Crown grants or denies long term use of Crown Lands by aboriginals, as per the treaties.
As such, the king or queen of Canada is the employer of all government officials and staff (including the viceroys, judges, members of the Canadian Forces, police officers, and parliamentarians), the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and equipment (Crown held property), state owned companies (Crown corporations), and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright).

Monarchy in the Canadian provinces

it does in all of Canada's other provincesCrown in right of each provincea province
Though the monarch owns all Crown Land in the country, it is divided in parallel with the "division" of the Crown among the federal and provincial jurisdictions, so that some lands within the provinces are administered by the relevant provincial Crown, whereas others are under the federal Crown.
As such, the monarch is the employer of all provincial government staff (including the viceroys, judges, police officers, and members of the legislative assemblies), the guardian of foster children (Crown wards), as well as the owner of all state lands (Crown land), buildings and equipment (Crown-held property), state-owned companies (Crown Corporations), and the copyright for all government publications (Crown copyright).

Landtag

state parliamentparliamentstate parliaments
The traditional Landstände (estates) assemblies were elevated to Landtage legislatures, partly elected according to the principle of census suffrage.
The modern Landtage are the democratic successors of the estates assemblies in the corresponding crown lands of the Austrian Empire.

Starosta

starostgovernorMayor
Those nobles who had received the privilege of administering the Crown lands (and thus keeping most of its profits) had the title of Starosta.
In Poland, a starosta would administer crown territory or a delineated district called a starostwo.

Duchies of Silesia

Silesian duchiesSilesiaSilesian duchy
The medieval European state of the Crown of Bohemia, which was an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, consisted of crown lands: Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Duchies of Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia.

Kingdom of Bohemia

BohemiaBohemianBohemian Kingdom
The medieval European state of the Crown of Bohemia, which was an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, consisted of crown lands: Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Duchies of Silesia, Upper and Lower Lusatia.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
However, through treaties between First Nations and the Crown in Right of Canada, the provincial Crown grants or denies long term use of Crown Lands by aboriginals, as per the treaties.
It enabled provincial control of Crown land and allowed Provincial laws regulating game to apply to Indians, but it also ensured that "Indians shall have the right ... of hunting, trapping and fishing game and fish for food at all seasons of the year on all unoccupied Crown lands and on any other lands to which the said Indians may have a right of access."

Executionist movement

execution movementRuch egzekucyjnyegzekucja praw
Ruch egzekucyjny (execution movement) of the late 16th century, led by Lord Grand Chancellor of the Crown Jan Zamoyski (against the interests of his own family), put as one of its goals the 'execution of lands', i.e. return of all Crown lands, which were often illegally held by next generations of Starostine families.
The movement sought the revendication of public and state lands which were illegally held by various magnates.

Public property

publiccommunal propertypublicly owned
In the late 16th century, because of reform and the introduction of the royal election of Polish kings, the royal lands became public property or state property.
Examples include Crown land, Crown copyright, and Crown Dependencies.

Szlachta

szlachcicnoblePolish nobility
Since 15th century the properties have often been leased, gifted or hocked to the members of nobility.
In 1562 at the Sejm in Piotrków they forced the Magnates to return many leased crown lands to the king, and the king to create a standing army wojsko kwarciane.

Kingdom of Poland (1385–1569)

Kingdom of PolandPolandPolish
In the Kingdom of Poland under the rules of Piast then Jagiellonian dynasties the institution of crown lands was similar to those in Great Britain or Austria-Hungary, the lands were the property of the monarch or dynasty.
Among the movement's demands were termination of the kings' practice of alienation of royal domain, giving or selling land estates to great lords at the monarch' discretion, and a ban on concurrent holding of multiple state offices by the same person, both legislated initially in 1504.

Demesne

Bartonfeudal domaindesmesne
Crown land (sometimes spelled crownland), also known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown.

Fee tail

entailOrdynatentailed
It is the equivalent of an entailed estate and passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it.