Crusade of Varna

long campaignVarna1443 crusadea great crusader armyChristian crusadenew crusadethe failed crusadeVarna Campaign
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.wikipedia
141 Related Articles

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444. In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state.
On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist.

John Hunyadi

János HunyadiJanos HunyadiIancu de Hunedoara
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.
Although defeated in the battle of Varna in 1444 and in the second battle of Kosovo in 1448, his successful "Long Campaign" across the Balkan Mountains in 1443–44 and defence of Belgrade/Nándorfehérvár in 1456, against troops led personally by the Sultan established his reputation as a great general.

Battle of Varna

Varnabattle10 November 1444
The Crusade of Varna culminated in a decisive Ottoman victory over the crusader alliance at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444, during which Władysław and the expedition's Papal legate Julian Cesarini were killed. On 10 November 1444 the two armies clashed at the Battle of Varna (near the Black Sea fortress of Varna, Bulgaria).
It was the final battle of the Crusade of Varna.

Władysław III of Poland

Władysław IIIWładysław III of VarnaVladislaus I
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.
The "bulwark of Christianity" and other slogans put forward by the papal envoy Giuliano Cesarini, together with much more reasonable but only verbal promises of Venetian and papal fleets blockading the Dardanelles Straits, along with an enticing vision of a promise of victory in the Crusade of Varna against the Turks, persuaded Władysław to engage his freshly victorious forces for another season of war, thus breaching the ten-year truce with the aggressive and still powerful Ottoman Empire.

Turahan Bey

Turakhan BegTurakhan BeyTurahanoğulları
In the Battle of Nish the crusaders were victorious and forced Kasim Pasha of Rumelia and his co-commander Turahan Bey to flee to Sofia, Bulgaria to warn Murad of the invasion.
He participated in many Ottoman campaigns of the second quarter of the 15th century, fighting against the Byzantines as well as against the Crusade of Varna.

Karamanids

KaramanidKaramanKaraman Beylik
After failing to take the fortress, he was forced to return to Anatolia to stop attacks by the Karamanids.
During the Crusade of Varna against the Ottomans in 1443–44, Karamanid İbrahim Bey marched on Ankara and Kütahya, destroying both cities.

Kasım Pasha

Kasim Pasha
In the Battle of Nish the crusaders were victorious and forced Kasim Pasha of Rumelia and his co-commander Turahan Bey to flee to Sofia, Bulgaria to warn Murad of the invasion.
Kasım Pasha or Kasem Pasha (Kasım Paşa; 1442–43) was an Albanian Ottoman general and governor, the beylerbey of Rumelia and one of the commanders of the Ottoman forces during the Crusade of Varna (1443–44).

Sofia

Sofia, BulgariaSofia MunicipalitySerdica
In the Battle of Nish the crusaders were victorious and forced Kasim Pasha of Rumelia and his co-commander Turahan Bey to flee to Sofia, Bulgaria to warn Murad of the invasion. War was proclaimed against Sultan Murad II at the diet of Buda on Palm Sunday 1443, and with an army of 40,000 men, mostly Magyars, the young monarch, with Hunyadi commanding under him, crossed the Danube and took Nish and Sofia.
After the failed crusade of Władysław III of Poland in 1443 towards Sofia, the city's Christian faced persecution and the city became the capital of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of Rumelia for more than four centuries.

Đurađ Branković

ĐurađGeorge BrankovicGyörgy Brankovics
Đurađ Branković, Despot of Serbia, fled to his estates in Hungary.
The peace was broken in the same year by Hunyadi and king Władysław during the Crusade of Varna, which culminated in the Battle of Varna.

Peace of Szeged

Edirne-Segedin (Szeged)Szeged and Edirneten-year truce
The Cardinal eventually found a solution that would allow for both the continuation of fighting and the ratification of the treaty, and on 15 August 1444 the Peace of Szeged was sworn into effect.
The treaty brought an end to the Christian crusade against the Ottomans with significant gains.

Varna

Varna, BulgariaOdessosOdessus
On 10 November 1444 the two armies clashed at the Battle of Varna (near the Black Sea fortress of Varna, Bulgaria).
The failure of the Crusade of Varna made the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 all but inevitable, and Varna (with all of Bulgaria) was to remain under Ottoman domination for over four centuries.

Battle of Kunovica

Kunovica
As they marched home, however, they ambushed and defeated a pursuing force in the Battle of Kunovica, where Mahmud Bey, son-in-law of the Sultan and brother of the Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha, was taken prisoner.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state.
John Hunyadi was leader of the Crusade of Varna, in which the Hungarians tried to expel the Turks from the Balkans.

Mircea II of Wallachia

Mircea IIMirceaMircea II ''the Younger
In October 1444, Vlad Dracul arrived near Nicopolis and tried to dissuade Vladislav III, king of Poland and Hungary, from continuing the Crusade of Varna.

Fruzhin

In 1444, he participated in Władysław III of Poland's Crusade of Varna, an attempt to drive the Ottoman Turks away from Bulgaria and Europe.

Central Europe

CentralMiddle EuropeCentral European
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.

Balkans

Balkan PeninsulaBalkanWestern Balkans
The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European monarchs to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Central Europe, specifically the Balkans between 1443 and 1444.

Pope Eugene IV

Eugene IVPope Eugenius IVEugenius IV
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Voivode of Transylvania

voivodeTransylvaniaTransylvanian voivode
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Philip the Good

Philip III, Duke of BurgundyPhilip III, the GoodPhilip the Good, Duke of Burgundy
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Duchy of Burgundy

BurgundyBurgundianBurgundians
It was called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443 and led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi, Voivode of Transylvania, and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy.

Julian Cesarini

Giuliano CesariniCardinal CesariniCesarini
The Crusade of Varna culminated in a decisive Ottoman victory over the crusader alliance at the Battle of Varna on 10 November 1444, during which Władysław and the expedition's Papal legate Julian Cesarini were killed.

Republic of Venice

VenetianVeniceVenetian Republic
In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state.

Serbian Despotate

Despot of SerbiaSerbian DespotSerbia
In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state.

Buffer state

bufferbuffer statesbuffer zone
In 1428, while the Ottoman Empire was fighting a war with the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Hungary they achieved a temporary peace by establishing the Serbian Despotate as a buffer state.