A report on Cryovolcano

Doom Mons, one of the most reliably identified cryovolcanoes on Saturn's moon Titan
Plumes of Enceladus, feeding Saturn's E Ring, seem to arise from the "Tiger Stripes" near the south pole.

Type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane into an extremely cold environment that is at or below their freezing point.

- Cryovolcano
Doom Mons, one of the most reliably identified cryovolcanoes on Saturn's moon Titan

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Overall

Pictured in 2012 in natural color. The thick atmosphere is orange due to a dense haze.

Titan (moon)

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Largest moon of Saturn and the second-largest natural satellite in the Solar System.

Largest moon of Saturn and the second-largest natural satellite in the Solar System.

Pictured in 2012 in natural color. The thick atmosphere is orange due to a dense haze.
Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan in 1655.
Titan's orbit (highlighted in red) among the other large inner moons of Saturn. The moons outside its orbit are (from the outside to the inside) Iapetus and Hyperion; those inside are Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, and Mimas.
True-color image of layers of haze in Titan's atmosphere
Trace organic gases in Titan's atmosphere—HNC (left) and HC3N (right).
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Methane clouds (animated; July 2014).
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False-color Cassini radar mosaic of Titan's north polar region. Blue coloring indicates low radar reflectivity, caused by hydrocarbon seas, lakes and tributary networks filled with liquid ethane, methane and dissolved . About half of the large body at lower left, Kraken Mare, is shown. Ligeia Mare is at lower right.
Mosaic of three Huygens images of channel system on Titan
Rimmed lakes of Titan (artist concept)
Near-infrared radiation from the Sun reflecting off Titan's hydrocarbon seas
Radar image of a 139 km-diameter impact crater on Titan's surface, showing a smooth floor, rugged rim, and possibly a central peak.
Ligeia Mare – SAR and clearer despeckled views.
Near-infrared image of Tortola Facula, thought to be a possible cryovolcano
False-color VIMS image of the possible cryovolcano Sotra Patera, combined with a 3D map based on radar data, showing 1000-meter-high peaks and a 1500-meter-deep crater.
Sand dunes in the Namib Desert on Earth (top), compared with dunes in Belet on Titan
Titan - three dust storms detected in 2009–2010.
Voyager 1 view of haze on Titan's limb (1980)
Cassini's Titan flyby radio signal studies (artist's concept)
The balloon proposed for the Titan Saturn System Mission (artistic rendition)
Global map of Titan – with IAU labels (August 2016).
Titan – infrared views (2004–2017)
Titan's North Pole (2014)
Titan's South Pole (2014)

The geologically young surface is generally smooth, with few impact craters, although mountains and several possible cryovolcanoes have been found.

View of trailing hemisphere in natural color

Enceladus

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Sixth-largest moon of Saturn .

Sixth-largest moon of Saturn .

View of trailing hemisphere in natural color
Voyager 2 view of Enceladus in 1981: Samarkand Sulci vertical grooves (lower center); Ali Baba and Aladdin craters (upper left)
Enceladus's orbit (red) – Saturn's north pole view
Possible origins of methane found in plumes
Eruptions on Enceladus look like discrete jets, but may be "curtain eruptions" instead
( video animation)
South polar view of the anti-Saturn hemisphere, with fractured areas in blue (false color)
Enceladus – tilted terminator – north is up
Enceladus – possibility of fresh ice detected (September 18, 2020)
Enceladus – Infrared map view (September 29, 2020)
View of Enceladus's Europa-like surface with the Labtayt Sulci fractures at center and the Ebony and Cufa dorsa at lower left, imaged by Cassini on February 17, 2005
Close-up of south pole terrain
Y-shaped discontinuities, imaged February 15, 2016
One possible scheme for Enceladus's cryovolcanism
A model of the interior of Enceladus: silicate core (brown); water-ice-rich mantle (white); a proposed diapir under the south pole (noted in the mantle (yellow) and core (red))
Artist's impression of a global subsurface ocean of liquid water ([[:File:PIA20013-Enceladus-SaturnMoon-ArtistConcept-20151026.jpg|updated and better scaled version]])
Enceladus – organics on ice grains (artist concept)
Chemical composition of Enceladus's plumes
Heat map of the south polar fractures, dubbed 'tiger stripes'
Enceladus (artist concept; February 24, 2020)
Artist's impression of possible hydrothermal activity on Enceladus's ocean floor
Animated 3D model of the Cassini–Huygens spacecraft
Enceladus orbiting within Saturn's E ring
Enceladus geyser tendrils - comparison of images ("a";"c") with computer simulations
Enceladus south polar region - locations of most active tendril-producing geysers
Enceladus and south polar jets (April 13, 2017).
Plumes above the limb of Enceladus feeding the E ring
A false-color Cassini image of the jets
Enceladus transiting the moon Titan
Size comparison of Earth, the Moon, and Enceladus
A size comparison of Enceladus against the British Isles.

Cryovolcanoes near the south pole shoot geyser-like jets of water vapor, molecular hydrogen, other volatiles, and solid material, including sodium chloride crystals and ice particles, into space, totaling about 200 kg per second.

Europa's trailing hemisphere in approximate natural colour. The prominent crater in the lower right is Pwyll and the darker regions are areas where Europa's primarily water ice surface has a higher mineral content. Imaged on 7 September 1996 by Galileo spacecraft.

Europa (moon)

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Smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 80 known moons of Jupiter.

Smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 80 known moons of Jupiter.

Europa's trailing hemisphere in approximate natural colour. The prominent crater in the lower right is Pwyll and the darker regions are areas where Europa's primarily water ice surface has a higher mineral content. Imaged on 7 September 1996 by Galileo spacecraft.
Animation of the Laplace resonance of Io, Europa and Ganymede (conjunctions are highlighted by color changes)
Size comparison of Europa (lower left) with the Moon (top left) and Earth (right)
Approximate natural color (left) and enhanced color (right) Galileo view of leading hemisphere
Realistic-color Galileo mosaic of Europa's anti-Jovian hemisphere showing numerous lineae
Enhanced-color view showing the intricate pattern of linear fractures on Europa's surface
Two possible models of Europa
Europa - internal structure
(artwork; 25 May 2021)
Closeup views of Europa obtained on 26 September 1998; images clockwise from upper left show locations from north to south as indicated at lower left.
Water plumes on Europa detected by the Galileo space probe
Photo composite of suspected water plumes on Europa
Magnetic field around Europa. The red line shows a trajectory of the Galileo spacecraft during a typical flyby (E4 or E14).
A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean. Driven by geothermal energy, this and other types of hydrothermal vents create chemical disequilibria that can provide energy sources for life.
Europa – possible effect of radiation on biosignature chemicals

Impurities in the water ice crust of Europa are presumed both to emerge from the interior as cryovolcanic events that resurface the body, and to accumulate from space as interplanetary dust.

Triton (moon)

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Largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and was the first Neptunian moon to be discovered, on October 10, 1846, by English astronomer William Lassell.

Largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and was the first Neptunian moon to be discovered, on October 10, 1846, by English astronomer William Lassell.

William Lassell, the discoverer of Triton
The orbit of Triton (red) is opposite in direction and tilted −23° compared to a typical moon's orbit (green) in the plane of Neptune's equator.
Animation of Triton
The Kuiper belt (green), in the Solar System's outskirts, is where Triton is thought to have originated.
Artist's impression of Triton, showing its tenuous atmosphere just over the limb.
Clouds observed above Triton's limb by Voyager 2.
Interpretative geomorphological map of Triton
Triton's bright south polar cap above a region of cantaloupe terrain
Cantaloupe terrain viewed from 130,000 km by Voyager 2, with crosscutting Europa-like double ridges. Slidr Sulci (vertical) and Tano Sulci form the prominent "X".
Tuonela Planitia (left) and Ruach Planitia (center) are two of Triton's cryovolcanic "walled plains". The paucity of craters is evidence of extensive, relatively recent, geologic activity.
NASA illustration detailing the studies of the proposed Trident mission
Neptune (top) and Triton (bottom) three days after flyby of Voyager 2
thumb|Close up of the volcanic province of Leviathan Patera, the caldera in the center of the image. Several pit chains extend radially from the caldera to the right of the image, while the smaller of the two cryolava lakes is seen to the upper left. Just off-screen to the lower left is a fault zone aligned radially with the caldera, indicating a close connection between the tectonics and volcanology of this geologic unit.
thumb|Dark streaks across Triton's south polar cap surface, thought to be dust deposits left by eruptions of nitrogen geysers
thumb|Two large cryolava lakes on Triton, seen west of Leviathan Patera. Combined, they are nearly the size of Kraken Mare on Titan. These features are unusually crater free, indicating they are young and were recently molten.

Intricate cryovolcanic and tectonic terrains suggest a complex geological history.

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.

Volcano

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Rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

Other types of volcano include cryovolcanoes (or ice volcanoes), particularly on some moons of Jupiter, Saturn, and Neptune; and mud volcanoes, which are formations often not associated with known magmatic activity.

Stereoscopic map of Sotra Patera and Doom Mons. Height is exaggerated by a factor of 10. The colours are false.

Sotra Patera

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Prominent depression on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.

Prominent depression on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.

Stereoscopic map of Sotra Patera and Doom Mons. Height is exaggerated by a factor of 10. The colours are false.
Global view of Titan showing the location of Sotra Patera

It is a possible cryovolcanic caldera 30 km across and 1.7 km deep, and is immediately to the east of the largest putative cryovolcanic mountain on Titan, the 1.45 km high Doom Mons.

Cassini view of Enceladus's south pole. The tiger stripes, from lower left to upper right, are the Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, Alexandria and Camphor sulci.

Tiger stripes (Enceladus)

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The tiger stripes of Enceladus consist of four sub-parallel, linear depressions in the south polar region of the Saturnian moon.

The tiger stripes of Enceladus consist of four sub-parallel, linear depressions in the south polar region of the Saturnian moon.

Cassini view of Enceladus's south pole. The tiger stripes, from lower left to upper right, are the Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo, Alexandria and Camphor sulci.
Composite map of the southern hemisphere of Enceladus (2007)
Enceladus - South Pole - Geyser basin (August 10, 2014).
Enceladus - South Pole - Geysers spray water from many locations along the "tiger stripes".
Eruptions on Enceladus may seem to be "discrete" jets, but may be "curtain" eruptions instead (video animation)
Enceladus orbiting within Saturn's E ring
Enceladus geyser tendrils - comparison of images ("a";"c") with computer simulations
Enceladus south polar region - locations of most active tendril-producing geysers

Observations from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument showed the tiger stripes to have elevated surface temperatures, indicative of present-day cryovolcanism on Enceladus centered on the tiger stripes.

Ganymede photographed by Juno in 2021

Ganymede (moon)

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Largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons.

Largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons.

Ganymede photographed by Juno in 2021
Size comparison of Earth, the Moon (top left), and Ganymede (bottom left)
Laplace resonance of Ganymede, Europa, and Io (conjunctions are highlighted by color changes)
Depiction of Ganymede centered over 45° W. longitude; dark areas are Perrine (upper) and Nicholson (lower) regiones; prominent craters are Tros (upper right) and Cisti (lower left).
Three high-resolution views of Ganymede taken by Voyager 1 near closest approach on July 9, 1979.
Tros crater, taken by Juno on 7 June 2021.
Enhanced-color Galileo spacecraft image of Ganymede's trailing hemisphere. The crater Tashmetum's prominent rays are at lower right, and the large ejecta field of Hershef at upper right. Part of dark Nicholson Regio is at lower left, bounded on its upper right by Harpagia Sulcus.
The craters Gula and Achelous (bottom), in the grooved terrain of Ganymede, with ejecta "pedestals" and ramparts.
Artist's cut-away representation of the internal structure of Ganymede. Layers drawn to scale.
False-color temperature map of Ganymede
Aurorae on Ganymede—auroral belt shifting may indicate a subsurface saline ocean.
A sharp boundary divides the ancient dark terrain of Nicholson Regio from the younger, finely striated bright terrain of Harpagia Sulcus.
Ganymede from Pioneer 10 (1973)
Hubble Space Telescope image of Ganymede taken in 1996.<ref>{{cite web|title=Hubble Finds First Evidence of Water Vapour at Jupiter's Moon Ganymede|url=https://esahubble.org/news/heic2107/|access-date=August 3, 2021}}</ref>
Infrared image of Ganymede taken during the Juno flyby in July 2021. Image Credits: A. Mura -Juno/JIRAM - ASI/INAF/JPL-Caltech/SwRI

Cryovolcanism is thought to have played only a minor role, if any.

Doom Mons with collapse feature Sotra Patera and flow feature Mohini Fluctus, the latter partially covered by dunes. Radar image by Cassini, 2007

Doom Mons

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Name of a mountain range and its eponymous peak on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.

Name of a mountain range and its eponymous peak on Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.

Doom Mons with collapse feature Sotra Patera and flow feature Mohini Fluctus, the latter partially covered by dunes. Radar image by Cassini, 2007

A putative cryovolcano, it is the largest mountain range on Titan by volume, and at 4757 ft one of the highest in the Solar System.

Miranda (moon)

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Smallest and innermost of Uranus's five round satellites.

Smallest and innermost of Uranus's five round satellites.

Voyager 2 image of Miranda's broken terrain. Verona Rupes, thought to be the highest cliffs in the Solar System, are located at the bottom right of Miranda.
Close-up of Verona Rupes, a large fault scarp on Miranda possibly 20 km high, taken by Voyager 2 in January 1986
Close-up of the ring of concentric fault scarps around Elsinore Corona
The three coronae imaged on Miranda by Voyager 2
The fault scarps around Elsinore (top right) and the chevrons of Inverness Corona (bottom left)
Approaching the 7 December 2007 equinox Miranda produced brief solar eclipses over the center of Uranus.

Craters on Miranda also appear to possess softened edges, which could be the result either of ejecta or of cryovolcanism.