A report on Europa (moon) and Cryovolcano

Europa's trailing hemisphere in approximate natural colour. The prominent crater in the lower right is Pwyll and the darker regions are areas where Europa's primarily water ice surface has a higher mineral content. Imaged on 7 September 1996 by Galileo spacecraft.
Doom Mons, one of the most reliably identified cryovolcanoes on Saturn's moon Titan
Animation of the Laplace resonance of Io, Europa and Ganymede (conjunctions are highlighted by color changes)
Plumes of Enceladus, feeding Saturn's E Ring, seem to arise from the "Tiger Stripes" near the south pole.
Size comparison of Europa (lower left) with the Moon (top left) and Earth (right)
Approximate natural color (left) and enhanced color (right) Galileo view of leading hemisphere
Realistic-color Galileo mosaic of Europa's anti-Jovian hemisphere showing numerous lineae
Enhanced-color view showing the intricate pattern of linear fractures on Europa's surface
Two possible models of Europa
Europa - internal structure
(artwork; 25 May 2021)
Closeup views of Europa obtained on 26 September 1998; images clockwise from upper left show locations from north to south as indicated at lower left.
Water plumes on Europa detected by the Galileo space probe
Photo composite of suspected water plumes on Europa
Magnetic field around Europa. The red line shows a trajectory of the Galileo spacecraft during a typical flyby (E4 or E14).
A black smoker in the Atlantic Ocean. Driven by geothermal energy, this and other types of hydrothermal vents create chemical disequilibria that can provide energy sources for life.
Europa – possible effect of radiation on biosignature chemicals

A number of features have been identified as possible cryovolcanoes on Pluto, Titan and Ceres, and a subset of domes on Europa may have cryovolcanic origins.

- Cryovolcano

Impurities in the water ice crust of Europa are presumed both to emerge from the interior as cryovolcanic events that resurface the body, and to accumulate from space as interplanetary dust.

- Europa (moon)
Europa's trailing hemisphere in approximate natural colour. The prominent crater in the lower right is Pwyll and the darker regions are areas where Europa's primarily water ice surface has a higher mineral content. Imaged on 7 September 1996 by Galileo spacecraft.

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View of trailing hemisphere in natural color


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Sixth-largest moon of Saturn .

Sixth-largest moon of Saturn .

View of trailing hemisphere in natural color
Voyager 2 view of Enceladus in 1981: Samarkand Sulci vertical grooves (lower center); Ali Baba and Aladdin craters (upper left)
Enceladus's orbit (red) – Saturn's north pole view
Possible origins of methane found in plumes
Eruptions on Enceladus look like discrete jets, but may be "curtain eruptions" instead
( video animation)
South polar view of the anti-Saturn hemisphere, with fractured areas in blue (false color)
Enceladus – tilted terminator – north is up
Enceladus – possibility of fresh ice detected (September 18, 2020)
Enceladus – Infrared map view (September 29, 2020)
View of Enceladus's Europa-like surface with the Labtayt Sulci fractures at center and the Ebony and Cufa dorsa at lower left, imaged by Cassini on February 17, 2005
Close-up of south pole terrain
Y-shaped discontinuities, imaged February 15, 2016
One possible scheme for Enceladus's cryovolcanism
A model of the interior of Enceladus: silicate core (brown); water-ice-rich mantle (white); a proposed diapir under the south pole (noted in the mantle (yellow) and core (red))
Artist's impression of a global subsurface ocean of liquid water ([[:File:PIA20013-Enceladus-SaturnMoon-ArtistConcept-20151026.jpg|updated and better scaled version]])
Enceladus – organics on ice grains (artist concept)
Chemical composition of Enceladus's plumes
Heat map of the south polar fractures, dubbed 'tiger stripes'
Enceladus (artist concept; February 24, 2020)
Artist's impression of possible hydrothermal activity on Enceladus's ocean floor
Animated 3D model of the Cassini–Huygens spacecraft
Enceladus orbiting within Saturn's E ring
Enceladus geyser tendrils - comparison of images ("a";"c") with computer simulations
Enceladus south polar region - locations of most active tendril-producing geysers
Enceladus and south polar jets (April 13, 2017).
Plumes above the limb of Enceladus feeding the E ring
A false-color Cassini image of the jets
Enceladus transiting the moon Titan
Size comparison of Earth, the Moon, and Enceladus
A size comparison of Enceladus against the British Isles.

Cryovolcanoes near the south pole shoot geyser-like jets of water vapor, molecular hydrogen, other volatiles, and solid material, including sodium chloride crystals and ice particles, into space, totaling about 200 kg per second.

Ridges have also been observed on Enceladus, though not nearly to the extent as those seen on Europa.

Triton (moon)

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Largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and was the first Neptunian moon to be discovered, on October 10, 1846, by English astronomer William Lassell.

Largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and was the first Neptunian moon to be discovered, on October 10, 1846, by English astronomer William Lassell.

William Lassell, the discoverer of Triton
The orbit of Triton (red) is opposite in direction and tilted −23° compared to a typical moon's orbit (green) in the plane of Neptune's equator.
Animation of Triton
The Kuiper belt (green), in the Solar System's outskirts, is where Triton is thought to have originated.
Artist's impression of Triton, showing its tenuous atmosphere just over the limb.
Clouds observed above Triton's limb by Voyager 2.
Interpretative geomorphological map of Triton
Triton's bright south polar cap above a region of cantaloupe terrain
Cantaloupe terrain viewed from 130,000 km by Voyager 2, with crosscutting Europa-like double ridges. Slidr Sulci (vertical) and Tano Sulci form the prominent "X".
Tuonela Planitia (left) and Ruach Planitia (center) are two of Triton's cryovolcanic "walled plains". The paucity of craters is evidence of extensive, relatively recent, geologic activity.
NASA illustration detailing the studies of the proposed Trident mission
Neptune (top) and Triton (bottom) three days after flyby of Voyager 2
thumb|Close up of the volcanic province of Leviathan Patera, the caldera in the center of the image. Several pit chains extend radially from the caldera to the right of the image, while the smaller of the two cryolava lakes is seen to the upper left. Just off-screen to the lower left is a fault zone aligned radially with the caldera, indicating a close connection between the tectonics and volcanology of this geologic unit.
thumb|Dark streaks across Triton's south polar cap surface, thought to be dust deposits left by eruptions of nitrogen geysers
thumb|Two large cryolava lakes on Triton, seen west of Leviathan Patera. Combined, they are nearly the size of Kraken Mare on Titan. These features are unusually crater free, indicating they are young and were recently molten.

Triton is one of the few moons in the Solar System known to be geologically active (the others being Jupiter's Io and Europa, and Saturn's Enceladus and Titan).

Intricate cryovolcanic and tectonic terrains suggest a complex geological history.

Ganymede photographed by Juno in 2021

Ganymede (moon)

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Largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons.

Largest and most massive of the Solar System's moons.

Ganymede photographed by Juno in 2021
Size comparison of Earth, the Moon (top left), and Ganymede (bottom left)
Laplace resonance of Ganymede, Europa, and Io (conjunctions are highlighted by color changes)
Depiction of Ganymede centered over 45° W. longitude; dark areas are Perrine (upper) and Nicholson (lower) regiones; prominent craters are Tros (upper right) and Cisti (lower left).
Three high-resolution views of Ganymede taken by Voyager 1 near closest approach on July 9, 1979.
Tros crater, taken by Juno on 7 June 2021.
Enhanced-color Galileo spacecraft image of Ganymede's trailing hemisphere. The crater Tashmetum's prominent rays are at lower right, and the large ejecta field of Hershef at upper right. Part of dark Nicholson Regio is at lower left, bounded on its upper right by Harpagia Sulcus.
The craters Gula and Achelous (bottom), in the grooved terrain of Ganymede, with ejecta "pedestals" and ramparts.
Artist's cut-away representation of the internal structure of Ganymede. Layers drawn to scale.
False-color temperature map of Ganymede
Aurorae on Ganymede—auroral belt shifting may indicate a subsurface saline ocean.
A sharp boundary divides the ancient dark terrain of Nicholson Regio from the younger, finely striated bright terrain of Harpagia Sulcus.
Ganymede from Pioneer 10 (1973)
Hubble Space Telescope image of Ganymede taken in 1996.<ref>{{cite web|title=Hubble Finds First Evidence of Water Vapour at Jupiter's Moon Ganymede|url=https://esahubble.org/news/heic2107/|access-date=August 3, 2021}}</ref>
Infrared image of Ganymede taken during the Juno flyby in July 2021. Image Credits: A. Mura -Juno/JIRAM - ASI/INAF/JPL-Caltech/SwRI

Ganymede orbits Jupiter in roughly seven days and is in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively.

Cryovolcanism is thought to have played only a minor role, if any.