Cryptocurrency

cryptocurrenciescryptocrypto-currencyaltcoincrypto-currenciesaltcoinscryptocurrency miningCryptoeconomicsminingcrypto currencies
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.wikipedia
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Bitcoin

BitcoinsBitcoin walletmining
Bitcoin, first released as open-source software in 2009, is generally considered the first decentralized cryptocurrency. Like bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that would follow it, bit gold (not to be confused with the later gold-based exchange, BitGold) was described as an electronic currency system which required users to complete a proof of work function with solutions being cryptographically put together and published.
Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency.

Digital currency

electronic moneydigital currenciesdigital cash
In 1983, the American cryptographer David Chaum conceived an anonymous cryptographic electronic money called ecash.
Examples include virtual currencies, cryptocurrencies, and central bank digital currency.

Namecoin

.bit
In April 2011, Namecoin was created as an attempt at forming a decentralized DNS, which would make internet censorship very difficult.
Namecoin (Symbol: ℕ or NMC) is a cryptocurrency originally forked from bitcoin software.

Litecoin

LTC
Soon after, in October 2011, Litecoin was released.
Litecoin (LTC or Ł) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency and open-source software project released under the MIT/X11 license.

Satoshi Nakamoto

Dorian NakamotoNakamotoNakamoto, Satoshi
The first decentralized cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was created in 2009 by pseudonymous developer Satoshi Nakamoto.
In January 2009, Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software that launched the network and the first units of the bitcoin cryptocurrency, called bitcoins.

Smart contract

smart contractsDigital contractscontracts
A blockchain account can provide functions other than making payments, for example in decentralized applications or smart contracts.
Various cryptocurrencies have implemented types of smart contracts.

Nick Szabo

bit gold
Shortly thereafter, Nick Szabo described bit gold.
Smart contracts are a major feature of cryptocurrency and the programming language E.

SHA-2

SHA-256SHA-512SHA256
It used SHA-256, a cryptographic hash function, as its proof-of-work scheme.
Several cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin use SHA-256 for verifying transactions and calculating proof of work or proof of stake.

Peercoin

Another notable cryptocurrency, Peercoin was the first to use a proof-of-work/proof-of-stake hybrid.
Peercoin, also known as PPCoin or PPC, is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency utilizing both proof-of-stake and proof-of-work systems.

Scrypt

It was the first successful cryptocurrency to use scrypt as its hash function instead of SHA-256.
A simplified version of scrypt is used as a proof-of-work scheme by a number of cryptocurrencies, first implemented by an anonymous programmer called ArtForz in Tenebrix and followed by Fairbrix and Litecoin soon after.

Dash (cryptocurrency)

DashX11Dark Gravity Wave
Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include CryptoNight, Blake, SHA-3, and X11.
Dash is an open source cryptocurrency and is a form of decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) run by a subset of users, called "masternodes".

Wei Dai

In 1998, Wei Dai published a description of "b-money", characterized as an anonymous, distributed electronic cash system.
In 1998, Dai helped to spark interest in cryptocurrencies with the publication of "b-money, an anonymous, distributed electronic cash system".

Mining pool

miners pool resourcespoolpooled
Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block.
In the context of cryptocurrency mining, a mining pool is the pooling of resources by miners, who share their processing power over a network, to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block.

Blockchain

blockchain technologyblockchainsBlockchain (database)
A blockchain account can provide functions other than making payments, for example in decentralized applications or smart contracts. Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block. The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database.
Blockchain was invented by a person (or group of people) using the name Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin.

Proof of stake

proof-of-stakeDPOS (Delegated Proof of Stake Algorithm)generates
Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work/proof-of-stake scheme.
Proof of stake (PoS) is a type of consensus algorithm by which a cryptocurrency blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus.

Ethereum

EtherERC-20Ethereum Virtual Machine
For ether, transaction fees differ by computational complexity, bandwidth use, and storage needs, while bitcoin transaction fees differ by transaction size and whether the transaction uses SegWit.
Ether is a cryptocurrency generated by the Ethereum platform and used to compensate mining nodes for computations performed.

Cryptocurrency exchange

bitcoin exchangeDigital currency exchangerdigital currency exchange
Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users.
A cryptocurrency exchange or a digital currency exchange (DCE) is a business that allows customers to trade cryptocurrencies or digital currencies for other assets, such as conventional fiat money or other digital currencies.

Initial coin offering

ICOinitial coin offeringsInitial Coin Offerings (ICOs)
An initial coin offering (ICO) is a controversial means of raising funds for a new cryptocurrency venture.
An initial coin offering (ICO) or initial currency offering is a type of funding using cryptocurrencies.

CryptoNote

CryptoNightDigitalNote XDN
Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include CryptoNight, Blake, SHA-3, and X11.
The protocol powers several decentralized privacy-oriented cryptocurrencies.

Cryptocurrency wallet

walletBlockchain Asset Walletblockchain wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency.
A cryptocurrency wallet is a device, physical medium, program or a service which stores the public and/or private keys and can be used to track ownership, receive or spend cryptocurrencies.

Non-fungible token

non-fungible token (NFT)
However, unique non-fungible tokens also exist.
A non-fungible token (NFT) is a special type of cryptographic token which represents something unique; non-fungible tokens are thus not mutually interchangeable by their individual specification.

Distributed ledger

Distributed Ledger Technologydistributed ledger technologiesdistributed ledger technology (DLT)
The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database.
They may be mineable (you can claim ownership of new coins contributing with a node) or not mineable (the creator of the cryptocurrency owns all at the beginning).

Petro (cryptocurrency)

PetroPetro (Venezuelan Cryptocurrency)petro cryptocurrency
Russia also secretly supported Venezuela with the creation of the petro (El Petro), a national cryptocurrency initiated by the Maduro government to obtain valuable oil revenues by circumventing US sanctions.
The petro, or petromoneda, launched in February 2018, is a cryptocurrency issued by the government of Venezuela.

Miner

minerscoal minersmine worker
Within a cryptocurrency system, the safety, integrity and balance of ledgers is maintained by a community of mutually distrustful parties referred to as miners: who use their computers to help validate and timestamp transactions, adding them to the ledger in accordance with a particular timestamping scheme.
In cryptocurrency a miner is a computer or group of computers 'searching' for cryptocurrency.

Proof of work

proof-of-workproof-of-work systemreusable proof of work
It used SHA-256, a cryptographic hash function, as its proof-of-work scheme. Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work/proof-of-stake scheme. Like bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies that would follow it, bit gold (not to be confused with the later gold-based exchange, BitGold) was described as an electronic currency system which required users to complete a proof of work function with solutions being cryptographically put together and published.
Bitcoin is a proof-of-work cryptocurrency that, like Finney's RPoW, is also based on the Hashcash PoW.