Cuban Missile Crisis

Cuban Quarantinemissile crisisCuban crisis1962 Cuban Missile CrisisCubaquarantine of Cubadetection of Soviet missiles in CubaCaribbean crisisCuban blockadeSoviet missiles in Cuba
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.wikipedia
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Cuba

Republic of CubaCubanCUB
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
The confrontation is often considered the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war.
The expansion and escalation sparked more crises, such as the Suez Crisis (1956), the Berlin Crisis of 1961, and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, which was perhaps the closest the two sides came to nuclear war.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Bay of PigsinvasionThe Bay of Pigs Invasion
In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, which had been launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles.
Strengthened Soviet-Cuban relations eventually led to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

Lockheed U-2

U-2U-2 spy planeTR-1
The missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range (SS-4) and intermediate-range (R-14) ballistic missile facilities. U-2 spyplanes found S-75 Dvina (NATO designation SA-2) surface-to-air missile sites at eight different locations.
Major Rudolf Anderson Jr. was shot down in a U-2 during the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union initiated by the American discovery of Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, which was among the many factors that led to his removal in 1964.

Fidel Castro

CastroFidelFidel Castro Ruz
An agreement was reached during a secret meeting between Khrushchev and Fidel Castro in July 1962, and construction of a number of missile launch facilities started later that summer.
Countering these threats, Castro aligned with the Soviet Union and allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons in Cuba, sparking the Cuban Missile Crisis – a defining incident of the Cold War – in 1962.

John F. Kennedy

KennedyPresident KennedyJohn Kennedy
After several days of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between US President John F. Kennedy and Khrushchev. The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, which had been launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles.
In October 1962, U.S. spy planes discovered Soviet missile bases had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting period of tensions, termed the Cuban Missile Crisis, nearly resulted in the breakout of a global thermonuclear conflict.

Nikita Khrushchev

KhrushchevNikita S. KhrushchevNikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev
In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion. In May 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was persuaded by the idea of countering the US's growing lead in developing and deploying strategic missiles by placing Soviet intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba, despite the misgivings of the Soviet Ambassador in Havana, Alexandr Ivanovich Alexeyev, who argued that Castro would not accept the deployment of the missiles.
Despite the cuts, Khrushchev's rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, culminating in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

United States embargo against Cuba

embargoCuban embargoembargo against Cuba
In February 1962, the US launched an embargo against Cuba, and Lansdale presented a 26-page, top-secret timetable for implementation of the overthrow of the Cuban government, mandating guerrilla operations to begin in August and September.
Again on October 19, 1960 (almost two years after the Cuban Revolution had led to the deposition of the Batista regime) the U.S. placed a blockade on exports to Cuba except for food and medicine after Cuba nationalized American-owned Cuban oil refineries without compensation and as a response to Cuba's role in the Cuban missile crisis.

Moscow–Washington hotline

hotlinered telephoneHot Line
As a result, the Moscow–Washington hotline was established.
The 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis made the hotline a priority.

Alexander Alexeyev

Alexandr Ivanovich AlexeyevAleksandr ShitovAlexandr Shitov
In May 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was persuaded by the idea of countering the US's growing lead in developing and deploying strategic missiles by placing Soviet intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba, despite the misgivings of the Soviet Ambassador in Havana, Alexandr Ivanovich Alexeyev, who argued that Castro would not accept the deployment of the missiles.
Alexeyev was later appointed as the Soviet Ambassador to Cuba, and played a vital role in easing tensions during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Ilyushin Il-28

Il-28Harbin H-5H-5
When all offensive missiles and Ilyushin Il-28 light bombers had been withdrawn from Cuba, the blockade was formally ended on November 21, 1962.
The Soviet Union was in the process of providing the type for local assembly in Cuba when this was halted by the Cuban Missile Crisis, after which Nikita Khrushchev agreed to remove them.

Cuban exile

Cuban exilesCubanCuban diaspora
The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, which had been launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles.
After the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 the Cuban government would restrict air traffic to the island, ending the first major wave of emigration.

Operation Anadyr

AnadyrOperation ''AnadyrSoviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba
The Soviet codename was Operation Anadyr.
However, part of it was foiled when the United States discovered the plan, prompting the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Russian military deception

maskirovkaMilitary Deceptionbluffed
From the very beginning, the Soviets' operation entailed elaborate denial and deception, known as "maskirovka".
The doctrine has also been put into practice in peacetime, with denial and deception operations in events such as the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Prague Spring, and the annexation of Crimea.

Anatoly Dobrynin

DobryninAnatoli DobryninAnatoliy Dobrynin
On September 7, Soviet Ambassador to the United States Anatoly Dobrynin assured United States Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai Stevenson that the Soviet Union was supplying only defensive weapons to Cuba.
He attracted notoriety among the American public during and after the Cuban Missile Crisis at the beginning of his ambassadorship, when he denied the presence of Soviet missiles in Cuba although, unbeknownst to him until days later, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev had already sent them and the Americans already had photographs of them.

S-75 Dvina

SA-2SA-2 GuidelineS-75
U-2 spyplanes found S-75 Dvina (NATO designation SA-2) surface-to-air missile sites at eight different locations.
The system was also deployed in Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when it shot down another U-2 (piloted by Rudolf Anderson) overflying Cuba on October 27, 1962, almost precipitating a nuclear war.

Curtis LeMay

Curtis E. LeMayGeneral Curtis LeMayCurtis Emerson LeMay
Air Force General Curtis LeMay presented a pre-invasion bombing plan to Kennedy in September, and spy flights and minor military harassment from US forces at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base were the subject of continual Cuban diplomatic complaints to the US government.
As Chief of Staff of the Air Force, he called for the bombing of Cuban missile sites during the Cuban Missile Crisis and sought a sustained bombing campaign against North Vietnam during the Vietnam War.

Operation Ortsac

PhibriglexPHIBRIGLEX-62
On the same day, the US announced a major military exercise in the Caribbean, PHIBRIGLEX-62, which Cuba denounced as a deliberate provocation and proof that the US planned to invade Cuba.
During the Cuban Missile Crisis, upon discovery of SS-4 missiles being assembled in Cuba, the U.S. Government considered several options including a blockade, an airstrike, or a military strike against the Cuban missile positions.

Central Intelligence Agency

CIAC.I.A.Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
The Kennedy administration had been publicly embarrassed by the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion in April 1961, which had been launched under President John F. Kennedy by CIA-trained forces of Cuban exiles.
This led eventually to the events of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

Special Activities Center

Special Activities DivisionSADSAD/SOG
CIA agents or "pathfinders" from the Special Activities Division were to be infiltrated into Cuba to carry out sabotage and organization, including radio broadcasts.
Deteriorating Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.

PGM-19 Jupiter

JupiterJupiter missileJupiter IRBM
In response to the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961 and the presence of American Jupiter ballistic missiles in Italy and Turkey, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev agreed to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles on the island to deter a future invasion.
All Jupiter MRBMs were removed from service by April 1963, as a backdoor trade with the Soviets in exchange for their earlier removal of MRBMs from Cuba.

Sphere of influence

spheres of influenceinfluencespheres of interest
It would, for example, defy the Monroe Doctrine, a US policy limiting US involvement in European colonies and European affairs but holding that the Western Hemisphere was in the US sphere of influence.
A notable exception occurred with the Soviet Union and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1962 United States elections

United States elections, 196219621962 elections
Meanwhile, the 1962 United States elections were under way, and the White House had for months denied charges that it was ignoring dangerous Soviet missiles 90 miles from Florida.
Republicans campaigned on Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the end of the crisis shortly before the election helped the Democrats avoid the typical midterm losses.

R-12 Dvina

R-12SS-4SS-4 Sandal
The missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of medium-range (SS-4) and intermediate-range (R-14) ballistic missile facilities.
Deployments of the R-12 missile in Cuba caused the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.