Cuban Revolution

revolution1959 revolution1959 Cuban RevolutionCuban Revolution of 1959revolutionaryrevolutionary governmentCubarevolutionary tribunalsocialist revolutionthe revolution
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the military dictatorship of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.wikipedia
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Fulgencio Batista

BatistaBatista regimeFulgencio Batista y Zaldívar
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the military dictatorship of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (born Rubén Zaldívar; January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was a Cuban military officer and politician who served as the elected President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, and as its U.S.-backed military dictator from 1952 to 1959, before being overthrown during the Cuban Revolution.

Fidel Castro

CastroFidelFidel Castro Ruz
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the military dictatorship of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
Returning to Cuba, Castro took a key role in the Cuban Revolution by leading the Movement in a guerrilla war against Batista's forces from the Sierra Maestra.

Cuba–United States relations

Cuba-United States relationsrelationsCuba – United States relations
In particular, it transformed Cuba's relationship with the United States, although efforts to improve diplomatic relations have gained momentum in recent years (see the Cuban thaw).
Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, bilateral relations deteriorated substantially.

26th of July Movement

July 26 MovementJuly 26th MovementM-26-7
The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the military dictatorship of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
This is considered one of the most important organizations among the Cuban Revolution.

Economy of Cuba

Cuban economyCubaNew Cuban economy
In the immediate aftermath of the revolution, Castro's government began a program of nationalization, centralization of the press and political consolidation that transformed Cuba's economy and civil society.
The country achieved a more even distribution of income after the Cuban Revolution of 1953-1959, which was followed by an economic embargo by the United States (1960- ).

Moncada Barracks

Cuartel MoncadaAssault of the Moncada garrisonattack
On 26 July 1953, the rebels attacked the Moncada Barracks in Santiago and the barracks in Bayamo, only to be decisively defeated by government soldiers.
This armed attack is widely accepted as the beginning of the Cuban Revolution.

Granma (yacht)

GranmaGranma yachtGranma'' (yacht)
The yacht Granma departed from Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico, on 25 November 1956, carrying the Castro brothers and 80 others including Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos, even though the yacht was only designed to accommodate 12 people with a maximum of 25.
Granma is the yacht that was used to transport 82 fighters of the Cuban Revolution from Mexico to Cuba in November 1956 for the purpose of overthrowing the regime of Fulgencio Batista.

Camilo Cienfuegos

Camilo Cienfuegos GorriaránCommander Camilo Cienfuegos
The yacht Granma departed from Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico, on 25 November 1956, carrying the Castro brothers and 80 others including Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos, even though the yacht was only designed to accommodate 12 people with a maximum of 25.
Camilo Cienfuegos Gorriarán (6 February 1932 – 28 October 1959) was a Cuban revolutionary born in Havana.

Celia Sánchez

Celia SanchezCelia Sanchez Manduley
A number of female revolutionaries, including Celia Sanchez and Haydée Santamaría (the sister of Abel Santamaria), also assisted Fidel Castro's operations in the mountains.
Celia Sánchez Manduley (May 9, 1920 – January 11, 1980) was a Cuban revolutionary, politician, researcher and archivist.

Santiago de Cuba

SantiagoSantiago, CubaSantiago de Cuba, Cuba
On 26 July 1953, the rebels attacked the Moncada Barracks in Santiago and the barracks in Bayamo, only to be decisively defeated by government soldiers. In the Oriente province (in the area of the present-day provinces of Santiago de Cuba, Granma, Guantánamo and Holguín), Fidel Castro, Raúl Castro and Juan Almeida Bosque directed attacks on four fronts.
On July 26, 1953, the Cuban Revolution began with an ill-prepared armed attack on the Moncada Barracks by a small contingent of rebels led by Fidel Castro.

Raúl Castro

Raul CastroRaúlRaúl Castro Ruz
To this end, he and his brother Raúl founded a paramilitary organization known as "The Movement", stockpiling weapons and recruiting around 1,200 followers from Havana's disgruntled working class by the end of 1952.
When the Granma landing failed and the 82 expeditionaries were detected by government troops soon after, Raúl was one of only 12 fighters who managed to reach a safe haven in the Sierra Maestra mountains, forming the core of the nascent rebel army (see the Cuban Revolution).

William Alexander Morgan

William A. MorganWilliam Morgan
The Second National Front was led by former Revolutionary Directorate member Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo and the "Yanqui Comandante" William Alexander Morgan.
William Alexander Morgan (April 19, 1928 – March 11, 1961) was a United States citizen who fought in the Cuban Revolution, leading a band of rebels that drove the Cuban army from key positions in the central mountains as part of Second National Front of Escambray, thereby helping to pave the way for Fidel Castro's forces to secure victory.

Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil

Directorio Revolucionario EstudantilDirectorio EstudiantileDRE
On 13 March 1957, a separate group of revolutionaries – the anticommunist Student Revolutionary Directorate (RD) (Directorio Revolucionario Estudantil, DRE), composed mostly of students – stormed the Presidential Palace in Havana, attempting to assassinate Batista and overthrow the government.
was a Cuban student group which in opposition to Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista from 1954 to 1957 played a role in the Cuban Revolution, which came to power in 1959.

Frank Sturgis

Frank A. SturgisFrank Fiorini
Castro was joined by CIA connected Frank Sturgis who offered to train Castro's troops in guerrilla warfare.
He served in several branches of the United States military and in the Cuban Revolution of 1958, and worked as an undercover operative for the Central Intelligence Agency.

Escopeteros

In addition, poorly armed irregulars known as escopeteros harassed Batista's forces in the foothills and plains of Oriente Province.
During the Cuban revolution, escopeteros were essential scouts and pickets from the Sierra Maestra and other mountain ranges to the plains.

Niquero

Playa Las ColoradasNiquero, Cuba
The boat landed in Playa Las Coloradas, in the municipality of Niquero, arriving two days later than planned because the boat was heavily loaded, unlike during the practice sailing runs.
During Cuban Revolution, Niquero was the site of the landing of Granma, a yacht boarded by 82 members of the 26th of July Movement, including Fidel Castro, Raúl Castro, Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos.

Haydée Santamaría

Haydée SantamariaHaydée Santamaría CuadradoHaydee Santamaria
A number of female revolutionaries, including Celia Sanchez and Haydée Santamaría (the sister of Abel Santamaria), also assisted Fidel Castro's operations in the mountains.
Having participated in the attack on the Moncada Barracks, Haydée Santamaría is among a relatively small group of people who were involved in every phase of the Cuban Revolution, from its inception to its fruition.

Cuban exile

Cuban exilesCubanCuban diaspora
The radio broadcasts were made possible by Carlos Franqui, a previous acquaintance of Castro who subsequently became a Cuban exile in Puerto Rico.
The term "Cuban exile" refers to the many Cubans who fled from or left the island of Cuba after the Cuban Revolution of 1959.

Huber Matos

However, in the Sierra Maestra mountains, Castro, aided by Frank País, Ramos Latour, Huber Matos, and many others, staged successful attacks on small garrisons of Batista's troops.
Following the success of the Cuban Revolution that brought Castro into power, he criticized of the regime's shift in favor of Marxist principles and ties to the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC).

Propaganda in Cuba

propaganda
In addition to armed resistance, the rebels sought to use propaganda to their advantage.
The Cuban Revolution was not only fought by armed rebels on the battlefield but also through the propaganda campaigns designed and orchestrated by Fidel Castro and his rebel comrades.

Operation Verano

Batista finally responded to Castro's efforts with an attack on the mountains called Operation Verano, known to the rebels as la Ofensiva.
Operation Verano (, "Operation Summer") was the name given to the summer offensive in 1958 by the Batista government during the Cuban Revolution, known to the rebels as La Ofensiva.

Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo

Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo
The Second National Front was led by former Revolutionary Directorate member Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo and the "Yanqui Comandante" William Alexander Morgan.
Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo (December 8, 1934; Madrid, Spain—October 26, 2012; Havana, Cuba) led the guerilla force Second National Front of the Escambray Mountains during the Cuban Revolution against Fulgencio Batista and later opposed the government of Fidel Castro over its pro-Soviet leanings.

Juan Almeida Bosque

Juan Almeida
In the Oriente province (in the area of the present-day provinces of Santiago de Cuba, Granma, Guantánamo and Holguín), Fidel Castro, Raúl Castro and Juan Almeida Bosque directed attacks on four fronts.
Juan Almeida Bosque (February 17, 1927 – September 11, 2009) was a Cuban politician and one of the original commanders of the insurgent forces in the Cuban Revolution.

Carlos Franqui

The radio broadcasts were made possible by Carlos Franqui, a previous acquaintance of Castro who subsequently became a Cuban exile in Puerto Rico.
Upon the success of the Cuban Revolution in 1959, he was placed in charge of the rebellion's newspaper Revolución, which became an official government publication.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
The yacht Granma departed from Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico, on 25 November 1956, carrying the Castro brothers and 80 others including Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos, even though the yacht was only designed to accommodate 12 people with a maximum of 25. Soon, the Castro brothers joined with other exiles in Mexico to prepare for the overthrow of Batista, receiving training from Alberto Bayo, a leader of Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War.
Mexico supported the Cuban government since its establishment in the early 1960s, the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua during the late 1970s, and leftist revolutionary groups in El Salvador during the 1980s.