Cuban rumba

rumbayambúcolumbiaguarapachangueoAfrocuban RumbaRumba GuaguancórumberasrumberoRumba (de solar o de cajón)rumba box
Rumba is a secular genre of Cuban music involving dance, percussion, and song.wikipedia
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Matanzas

Matanzas, CubaCarboneraPueblo Nuevo
It originated in the northern regions of Cuba, mainly in urban Havana and Matanzas, during the late 19th century.
Matanzas is known as the birthplace of the music and dance traditions danzón and rumba.

Guaguancó

guaguanco
This complex encompasses the three traditional forms of rumba (yambú, guaguancó and columbia), as well as their contemporary derivatives and other minor styles.
Guaguancó is a subgenre of Cuban rumba, combining percussion, voices, and dance.

Yuka (music)

yukayuka drum
It is based on African music and dance traditions, namely Abakuá and yuka, as well as the Spanish-based coros de clave.
Yuka predates other Afro-Cuban genres of dance music like rumba and has survived in Kongo communities of Pinar del Río, specifically in El Guayabo and Barbacoa, San Luis.

Los Muñequitos de Matanzas

Los Munequitos de MatanzasGrupo Guaguancó MatanceroGuaguancó Matancero
During the genre's recorded history, which began in the 1940s, there have been numerous successful rumba bands such as Los Papines, Los Muñequitos de Matanzas, Clave y Guaguancó, AfroCuba de Matanzas and Yoruba Andabo.
Los Muñequitos de Matanzas is a Cuban rumba ensemble from the city of Matanzas.

Cajón de rumba

cajónCajonesperuvian-flamenco cajón
Cajones (wooden boxes) were used as drums until the early 20th century, when they were replaced by tumbadoras (conga drums).
The cajones de rumba are wooden boxes used as rhythmic percussion instruments in some styles of Cuban rumba.

Abakuá

AbakuaAbakuá musiciremes
It is based on African music and dance traditions, namely Abakuá and yuka, as well as the Spanish-based coros de clave.
The rhythmic dance music of the Abakuá combined with Bantu traditions of the Congo contributed to the musical tradition of the rumba.

Rumba flamenca

rumbaFlamenco rumbarumbas
Its influence in Spain is testified by rumba flamenca and derivatives such as Catalan rumba.
Some elements from Cuban rumba were also incorporated, although minor, despite the name.

Quinto (drum)

quintorumba quintoquinto drum
The core instruments of any rumba ensemble are the claves, two hard wooden sticks that are struck against each other, and the conga drums: quinto (lead drum, highest-pitched), tres dos (middle-pitched), and tumba or salidor (lowest-pitched).
It is used as the lead drum in Cuban rumba styles such as guaguancó, yambú, columbia and guarapachangueo, and it is also present in congas de comparsa.

Polyrhythm

polyrhythmspolyrhythmictribal rhythms
Vocal improvisation, elaborate dancing and polyrhythmic drumming are the key components of all rumba styles.
Cuban Rumba uses 3-based and 2-based rhythms at the same time, for example, the lead drummer (playing the quinto) might play in, while the rest of the ensemble keeps playing.

Music of Cuba

Cuban musicCubanAfro-Cuban
Rumba is a secular genre of Cuban music involving dance, percussion, and song.
Urban rumba (also called Rumba (de solar o de cajón)), is an amalgamation of several African drumming and dance traditions, combined with Spanish influences.

Ignacio Piñeiro

During the 1940s, the genre experienced a mutual influence with son cubano, especially by Ignacio Piñeiro's Septeto Nacional and Arsenio Rodríguez's conjunto, which led to the incorporation of instruments such as the tres, the double bass, the trumpet and the piano, and the removal of idiophone instruments.
Ignacio Piñeiro Martínez (May 21, 1888 – March 12, 1969) was a Cuban musician, bandleader and composer whose career started in rumba and flowered in the rise of the son.

Arsenio Rodríguez

Arsenio RodriguezConjunto de Arsenio Rodríguez
During the 1940s, the genre experienced a mutual influence with son cubano, especially by Ignacio Piñeiro's Septeto Nacional and Arsenio Rodríguez's conjunto, which led to the incorporation of instruments such as the tres, the double bass, the trumpet and the piano, and the removal of idiophone instruments.
He played the tres, as well as the tumbadora, and he specialized in son, rumba and other Afro-Cuban music styles.

Clave (rhythm)

claveclave rhythmkey pattern
Rhythmically, rumba is based on the five-stroke guide pattern called clave and the inherent structure it conveys.
It is present in a variety of genres such as Abakuá music, rumba, conga, son, mambo, salsa, songo, timba and Afro-Cuban jazz.

Malanga (dancer)

Malanga
Many of the important figures in the history of rumba, from Malanga to Mongo Santamaría were raised in solares.
José Rosario Oviedo (October 5, 1885 – 1927), better known as Malanga, was a Cuban rumba dancer.

Coros de clave

coro de clave
It is based on African music and dance traditions, namely Abakuá and yuka, as well as the Spanish-based coros de clave.

Alberto Zayas

The first commercial ensemble recordings of rumba were made in the mid 1950s by Alberto Zayas and his Conjunto Afrocubano Lulú Yonkori, yielding the 1956 hit "El vive bien".
Alberto Zayas Govín (February 14, 1908 – 1983) was a Cuban rumba singer and songwriter who founded one of the first recorded rumba ensembles, Grupo Afrocubano Lulú Yonkori.

Batá-rumba

The group AfroCuba de Matanzas, founded in 1957, added batá drums to the traditional rumba ensemble in their style, known as batá-rumba.
Batá-rumba is a hybrid form of Cuban rumba combining batá drums with guaguancó.

Afro-Cuban

Afro-CubansblackAfro Cuban
The consistent interaction of Africans and Europeans on the island brought about what today is known as Afro-Cuban culture.
Religious music includes the chants, rhythms and instruments used in rituals of the above-mentioned religious currents, while profane music focuses largely on rumba, guaguancó and comparsa (carnival music) as well as several lesser styles such as the tumba francesa.

Tahona

Taona
However, others have been lost to time or are extremely rare today, such as the tahona, papalote, tonada, and the jiribilla and resedá.
It is considered one of the oldest styles within the rumba complex, and its performance became rare by the 20th century.

Pancho Quinto

Pancho Quinto and his group Yoruba Andabo also played a vital role in the development of the genre.
Francisco Hernández Mora (April 23, 1933 – February 11, 2005), better known as Pancho Quinto, was a Cuban rumba percussionist and teacher.

Yoruba Andabo

Pancho Quinto and his group Yoruba Andabo also played a vital role in the development of the genre.
Yoruba Andabo is a Cuban rumba ensemble founded in 1981 by conga drummer Pancho Quinto.

Carlos Vidal Bolado

Carlos Vidal
The first commercial studio recordings of Cuban rumba were made in 1947 in New York by Carlos Vidal Bolado and Chano Pozo for SMC Pro-Arte, and in 1948 in Havana by Filiberto Sánchez for Panart.
Vidal holds the double distinction of being the first to record authentic folkloric Cuban rumba and the first to play congas in Latin jazz (with Machito and his Afro-Cubans).

Vocal Sampling

More recently, a cappella (vocals-only, without instruments) rumba has been performed by the Cuban ensemble Vocal Sampling, as heard in their song "Conga Yambumba".
They are distinctive for their rich a cappella adaptations of traditional Cuban salsa music, son, and Rumba, such as their renditions of "El Cuarto de Tula" and "La Negra Tomasa", vocally imitating the piano, cowbell, conga, bass, and trumpet, used originally in such songs.

Descarga

descargas
Descargas (mostly instrumental jams sessions) where jazz-influenced improvisation was developed, were first known as rumbitas in the early 1940s.
A descarga (literally discharge in Spanish) is an improvised jam session consisting of variations on Cuban music themes, primarily son montuno, but also guajira, bolero, guaracha and rumba.

Rhumba

Rumbaballroom rumba Rumba
In the United States it gave its name to the so-called "ballroom rumba" or rhumba, and in Africa soukous is commonly referred to as "Congolese rumba" (despite being actually based on son cubano).
It combined American big band music with Afro-Cuban rhythms, primarily the son cubano, but also conga and rumba.