Cultigen

cultigenscultural varietyfood cultivation
A cultigen (from the Latin cultus – cultivated, and gens – kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection.wikipedia
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Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
Cultigens arise in the following ways: selections of variants from the wild or cultivation including vegetative sports (aberrant growth that can be reproduced reliably in cultivation); plants that are the result of plant breeding and selection programs; genetically modified plants (plants modified by the deliberate implantation of genetic material); and graft-chimaeras (plants grafted to produce mixed tissue, the graft material possibly from wild plants, special selections, or hybrids).
Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to methods that make use of knowledge of genetics and chromosomes, to more complex molecular techniques (see cultigen and cultivar).

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
A cultigen (from the Latin cultus – cultivated, and gens – kind) is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection.
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)ICNCPselling name
Although it is perfectly in order to give a cultigen a botanical name, in any rank desired, now or at any other time, these days it is more common for cultigens to be given names in accordance with the principles, rules and recommendations laid down in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which provides for the names of cultigens in three classification categories, the cultivar, the Group (formerly cultivar-group), and the grex.
The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), also known as the Cultivated Plant Code, is a guide to the rules and regulations for naming cultigens, plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.

Cultivar

cultivarsvarietycultivated variety
Although it is perfectly in order to give a cultigen a botanical name, in any rank desired, now or at any other time, these days it is more common for cultigens to be given names in accordance with the principles, rules and recommendations laid down in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which provides for the names of cultigens in three classification categories, the cultivar, the Group (formerly cultivar-group), and the grex.
Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, which is defined as a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.

Cultivated plant taxonomy

horticultural taxonomycultivatedhorticultural name
Cultivated plant taxonomy
Cultivated plant taxonomy is the study of the theory and practice of the science that identifies, describes, classifies, and names cultigens—those plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.

Botanical nomenclature

specific epithetnomenclaturesubspecies epithet
Plants like Quercus robur, Pedunculate or English Oak, Liquidambar styraciflua, Sweetgum and Eucalyptus globulus, Blue Gum grown in parks and gardens are essentially the same as their wild counterparts and are therefore not cultigens. However, occasionally within natural plant variation there occur characters that are of value to horticulture but of little interest to botany. For example a plant might have flowers of several different colours but these may not have been given formal botanical names. It is customary in horticulture to introduce such variants to commerce and to give them cultivar names. Technically these plants have not been deliberately altered in any way from plants growing (or once growing) in the wild but as they are deliberately selected and named it seems permissible to refer to them as cultigens. These occurrences are very few. The definition could be (clumsily) extended by mentioning that selection can be for "desirable variation that is not recognised in botanical nomenclature".
Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans (see cultigen).

Indigen

These he referred to as indigens.
" ... a species of which we know the nativity, - one that is somewhere recorded as indigenous. " The term was coined to contrast with cultigen which he defined in the 1923 paper as: " ... the species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication, – the plant is cultigenous."

Domestication

domesticateddomesticdomesticate
Domestication of plants
Domesticated plants deliberately altered or selected for special desirable characteristics are cultigens.

Liberty Hyde Bailey

L.H.BaileyL.H. BaileyL. H. Bailey
The word cultigen was coined in 1918 by Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858–1954) an American horticulturist, botanist and cofounder of the American Society for Horticultural Science.
He also coined the words "cultivar", "cultigen", and "indigen".

List of Korean inventions and discoveries

Early cultivation of the soybean dates back to 4,000 years ago, and originates in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. Early Chinese records mention that soybeans were gifted from the region encompassing Manchuria and Korea. The first unambiguously domesticated, cultigen-sized soybean was discovered in Korea at the Mumun-period Daundong site.

Botanical name

specific epithetepithetspecific name
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).

Shiso

perillaPerilla frutescens'' var. ''crispaP. frutescens'' var. ''crispa
It is sometimes referred to by its genus name, perilla, but this is ambiguous as it could also refer to a different cultigen (Perilla frutescens var.

Salvia divinorum

salviaS. divinorumQuid-chewing
Botanists have not determined whether Salvia divinorum is a cultigen or a hybrid because native plants reproduce vegetatively and rarely produce viable seed.

Deptford culture

DeptfordDeptford periodEarly Woodland Deptford culture
The Deptford culture (800 BCE—700 CE) was characterized by the appearance of elaborate ceremonial complexes, increasing social and political complexity, mound burial, permanent settlements, population growth, and an increasing reliance on cultigens.

Soybean

soysoybeanssoya
It is a cultural variety with a very large number of cultivars.

Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture

Santa Rosa-Swift Creek
The Santa Rosa-Swift Creek culture was characterized by the appearance of elaborate ceremonial complexes, increasing social and political complexity, mound burial, permanent settlements, population growth, and an increasing reliance on cultigens.

Red Delicious

red applesRed Applered
The Red Delicious is a clone of apple cultigen, now comprising more than 50 cultivars, first recognized in Madison County, Iowa, in 1880.

Okra

okrolady fingerlady's finger
Truly wild (as opposed to naturalised) populations are not known with certainty and the species may be a cultigen.

Prunus incisa

P. incisaFuji cherry
A dainty slow-growing, early white-flowering cherry, it is a century-old cultigen from Hondo, Japan.

Chrysopogon zizanioides

vetivervetiver grassvetiver oil
Almost all vetiver grown worldwide is vegetatively propagated, bioengineering has shown them as essentially the same nonfertile cultigen by DNA profiling.

Sweet potato

sweet potatoeskumarakūmara
The cultigen was most likely spread by local people to the Caribbean and South America by 2500 BCE.

Horticultural flora

floraHorticultura
Horticultural floras include both cultigens (plants deliberately altered in some way by human activity) and those wild plants brought directly into cultivation that do not have cultigen names.

Landrace

landracesnatural breedautochthonous
The label landraces includes all those regional cultigens that are highly heterogeneous, but with enough characteristics in common to permit their recognition as a group.