Cultivar

cultivarsvarietycultivated varietyCultivar Groupcultivatedcv.varietiescultivar groupscultivated varietiesapple cultivar
The term cultivar most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation.wikipedia
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International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants

ICNCPInternational Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP)selling name
More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). The naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, and the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP, commonly denominated the Cultivated Plant Code). A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet.
Cultigens under the purview of the ICNCP include cultivars, Groups (cultivar groups), and grexes.

Narcissus (plant)

Narcissusdaffodildaffodils
Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form.
The long history of breeding has resulted in thousands of different cultivars.

Camellia

camelliasTheaCamélias
Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form.
The ornamental C. japonica, C. sasanqua and their hybrids are the source of hundreds of garden cultivars.

Azalea

azaleasJapanese azaleaMountain Azalea
Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form.
This human selection has produced over 10,000 different cultivars which are propagated by cuttings.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form.
Domesticated animals are known as breeds, normally bred by a professional breeder, while domesticated plants are known as varieties, cultigens, or cultivars.

Cultivated plant taxonomy

horticultural taxonomyclassification of cultivated plantscultivated
The naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, and the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP, commonly denominated the Cultivated Plant Code). A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet.
This is indicated in Principle 2 of the Cultivated Plant Code which defines the scope of the Code as "... plants whose origin or selection is primarily due to the intentional actions of mankind" — plants that have evolved under natural selection with human assistance.Thirdly, cultivated plant taxonomy is concerned with plant variation that requires the use of special classification categories that do not conform with the hierarchy of ranks implicit in the Botanical Code, these categories being the cultivar, Group and grex (which are only loosely equivalent to ranks in the Botanical Code). This feature is also referred to in the Preamble to the Cultivated Plant Code which states that "The purpose of giving a name to a taxon is not to indicate its characters or history, but to supply a means of referring to it and to indicate to which category it is assigned." Fourthly, cultivated plant taxonomy serves a particular community of people: the Botanical Code focuses on the needs of plant taxonomists as they attempt to maintain order and stability for the scientific names of all plants, while the Cultivated Plant Code caters for the needs of people requiring names for plants used in the commercial world of agriculture, forestry and horticulture.

Botanical nomenclature

specific epithetnomenclaturesubspecies epithet
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' (1707–1778) Species Plantarum (tenth edition) and Genera Plantarum (fifth edition).
Within the limits set by that code there is another set of rules, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which applies to plant cultivars that have been deliberately altered or selected by humans (see cultigen).

Cultigen

cultigenscultural varietyfood cultivation
Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, which is defined as a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity. Cultigens can have names at any of many taxonomic ranks, including those of grex, species, cultivar group, variety, form, and cultivar; and they may be plants that have been altered in cultivation, including by genetic modification, but have not been formally denominated.
Although it is perfectly in order to give a cultigen a botanical name, in any rank desired, now or at any other time, these days it is more common for cultigens to be given names in accordance with the principles, rules and recommendations laid down in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) which provides for the names of cultigens in three classification categories, the cultivar, the Group (formerly cultivar-group), and the grex.

Liberty Hyde Bailey

L.H.BaileyL.H. BaileyL. H. Bailey
Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, which is defined as a plant whose origin or selection is primarily due to intentional human activity.
He also coined the words "cultivar", "cultigen", and "indigen".

Variety (botany)

varietiesvarietyvar.
A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, which is a taxonomic rank below subspecies, and there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars. Cultigens can have names at any of many taxonomic ranks, including those of grex, species, cultivar group, variety, form, and cultivar; and they may be plants that have been altered in cultivation, including by genetic modification, but have not been formally denominated.
However, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, while recognizing that the word "variety" is often used to denote "cultivar", does not accept this usage.

Rhododendron

rhododendronsAzaleaDwarf azalea
Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form.
There are over 28,000 cultivars of Rhododendron in the International Rhododendron Registry held by the Royal Horticultural Society.

Granny Smith

green appleGranny Smith appleGranny Smith apples
Cultivars generally occur as ornamentals and food crops: Malus 'Granny Smith' and Malus 'Red Delicious' are cultivars of apples propagated by cuttings or grafting, Lactuca 'Red Sails' and Lactuca 'Great Lakes' are lettuce cultivars propagated by seeds.
The Granny Smith is a tip-bearing apple cultivar, which originated in Australia in 1868.

Grex (horticulture)

grexgregesgrexes
Cultigens can have names at any of many taxonomic ranks, including those of grex, species, cultivar group, variety, form, and cultivar; and they may be plants that have been altered in cultivation, including by genetic modification, but have not been formally denominated.
Grex names are one of the three categories of plant names governed by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants; within a grex the cultivar group category can be used to refer to plants by their shared characteristics (rather than by their parentage), and individual orchid plants can be selected (and propagated) and named as cultivars.

Daylily

dayliliesday lilieshemerocallis
Named cultivars of Hosta and Hemerocallis plants are cultivars produced by micropropagation or division.
Thousands of cultivars have been registered by local and international Hemerocallis societies.

Grafting

graftedsciongraft
Cultivars generally occur as ornamentals and food crops: Malus 'Granny Smith' and Malus 'Red Delicious' are cultivars of apples propagated by cuttings or grafting, Lactuca 'Red Sails' and Lactuca 'Great Lakes' are lettuce cultivars propagated by seeds. Cultivars that are produced asexually are genetically identical and known as clones; this includes plants propagated by division, layering, cuttings, grafts, and budding.
In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type.

Cultivar group

Groupcultivar-groupGroups
Cultigens can have names at any of many taxonomic ranks, including those of grex, species, cultivar group, variety, form, and cultivar; and they may be plants that have been altered in cultivation, including by genetic modification, but have not been formally denominated.
A Group (previously cultivar-group ) is a formal category in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP) used for cultivated plants (cultivars) that share a defined characteristic.

Red Delicious

Red Applered applesdelicious apple
Cultivars generally occur as ornamentals and food crops: Malus 'Granny Smith' and Malus 'Red Delicious' are cultivars of apples propagated by cuttings or grafting, Lactuca 'Red Sails' and Lactuca 'Great Lakes' are lettuce cultivars propagated by seeds.
The Red Delicious is a clone of apple cultigen, now comprising more than 50 cultivars, first recognized in Madison County, Iowa, in 1880.

Malus

crabapplecrab appleapple
Cultivars generally occur as ornamentals and food crops: Malus 'Granny Smith' and Malus 'Red Delicious' are cultivars of apples propagated by cuttings or grafting, Lactuca 'Red Sails' and Lactuca 'Great Lakes' are lettuce cultivars propagated by seeds.
Numerous hybrid cultivars have been selected.

Subspecies

nominate subspeciesnominotypical subspeciesnominate
A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, which is a taxonomic rank below subspecies, and there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
Cultivar in botany

Cloning

cloneclonescloned
Cultivars that are produced asexually are genetically identical and known as clones; this includes plants propagated by division, layering, cuttings, grafts, and budding.
Many horticultural plant cultivars are clones, having been derived from a single individual, multiplied by some process other than sexual reproduction.

International Cultivar Registration Authority

ICRA
Names of cultivars are regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, and may be registered with an International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA).
An International Cultivation Registration Authority (ICRA) is an organization responsible for ensuring that the name of plant cultivars and cultivar groups are defined and not duplicated.

Hosta

hostasplantain lilyHosta 'Quaker Lady
Named cultivars of Hosta and Hemerocallis plants are cultivars produced by micropropagation or division.
Many cultivated hostas formerly described as species have been reduced to cultivars; these often have their names conserved, and retain Latinized names which resemble species names (e.g., Hosta 'Fortunei').

Botanical name

specific epithetepithetspecific name
A cultivar name consists of a botanical name (of a genus, species, infraspecific taxon, interspecific hybrid or intergeneric hybrid) followed by a cultivar epithet.
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP).

Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
A cultivar name consists of a botanical name (of a genus, species, infraspecific taxon, interspecific hybrid or intergeneric hybrid) followed by a cultivar epithet.
Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds (usually called cultivars in reference to plants); crossbreeds between them (without any wild stock) are sometimes also imprecisely referred to as "hybrids".

Cabbage

cabbageswhite cabbagegreen cabbage
Brassica oleracea Capitata Group (the group of cultivars including all typical cabbages)
Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.