Cultural artifact

Nikon D200 Digital Camera

Term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users.

- Cultural artifact

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Artifact (archaeology)

General term for an item made or given shape by humans, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.

Mycenaean stirrup jar from Ras Shamra (Ugarit) Syria, 1400–1300 BC
A 2nd century AD Sarmatian-Parthian gold necklace and amulet from the Black Sea region.
A Crusading Period spoon from 1017 that was found on archaeological excavation of Tursiannotko in Pirkkala, Finland.
Curmsun Disc - Obverse, Jomsborg, 980s, Burial site of king Harald Bluetooth

In archaeology, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest.

Culture

Umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.

Pygmy music has been polyphonic well before their discovery by non-African explorers of the Baka, Aka, Efe, and other foragers of the Central African forests, in the 1200s, which is at least 200 years before polyphony developed in Europe. Note the multiple lines of singers and dancers. The motifs are independent, with theme and variation interweaving. This type of music is thought to be the first expression of polyphony in world music.
The Beatles exemplified changing cultural dynamics, not only in music, but fashion and lifestyle. Over a half century after their emergence, they continue to have a worldwide cultural impact.
A 19th-century engraving showing Australian natives opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1770
An Assyrian child wearing traditional clothing.
Full-length profile portrait of a Turkmen woman, standing on a carpet at the entrance to a yurt, dressed in traditional clothing and jewelry
Johann Herder called attention to national cultures.
Adolf Bastian developed a universal model of culture.
British poet and critic Matthew Arnold viewed "culture" as the cultivation of the humanist ideal.
British anthropologist Edward Tylor was one of the first English-speaking scholars to use the term culture in an inclusive and universal sense.
Petroglyphs in modern-day Gobustan, Azerbaijan, dating back to 10,000 BCE and indicating a thriving culture
An example of folkloric dancing in Colombia.
Nowruz is a good sample of popular and folklore culture that is celebrated by people in more than 22 countries with different nations and religions, at the 1st day of spring. It has been celebrated by diverse communities for over 7,000 years
The Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan. Visual art is one expression of culture.
Cognitive tools suggest a way for people from certain culture to deal with real-life problems, like Suanpan for Chinese to perform mathematical calculation
A fact finding mission by Blue Shield International in Egypt during the 2011 revolution to protect the cultural assets there.

This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies power as residing with those producing cultural artifacts.

Folklore

Body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

Netherlandish Proverbs by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1559
Indian Folk Worship at Batu Caves, Selangor Malaysia
Folk dancing, Plovdiv Bulgaria
Serbian Folk Group, Music and Costume. A group of performers sharing traditional Serbian folk music on the streets of Belgrade, Serbia.
Friends in the farm
Folklore theater in Mansoura, Egypt
United Arab Emirates traditional folk dance, the women flip their hair sideways in brightly coloured traditional dress.
The story of Jahangir and Anarkali is popular folklore in the former territories of the Mughal Empire.
Horse and sulky weathervane, Smithsonian American Art Museum
Santa Claus giving gifts to children, a common folk practice associated with Christmas in Western nations
Hajji Firuz is a fictional character in Iranian folklore who appears in the streets by the beginning of Nowruz, dances through the streets while singing and playing tambourine.
Practitioners of hoodening, a folk custom found in Kent, southeastern England, in 1909
Children's Games by Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1560; there are five boys playing a game of buck buck in the lower right-hand corner of the painting.
Folk-dance-kalash in Pakistan
Slovene Folklore Dancers
Dancing Hungarians by J. B. Heinbucher, 1816
Some elements of folk culture might be in the center of local culture and an import part of self-identity. For instance folk dance is highly popular in Estonia and it has evolved into a sort of a national sport. XIX Estonian Dance Celebration in 2015 that was held together with Estonian Song Festival.

Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact.

Franconia

Region of Germany, characterised by its culture and Franconian dialect (German: Fränkisch).

Nuremberg
Marienberg Fortress in Würzburg
Schweinfurt
The present-day Upper, Lower and Middle Franconian administrative districts (in blue), with adjacent East Franconian language areas in Thuringia (tan) and in Baden-Württemberg (yellow)
The Franconian Rake may be used as an indicator of whether a place is part of Franconia.
Here: the vestry of Meiningen's municipal church in South Thuringia. The Franconian Rake may be seen on the left
The Bavarian provinces of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia
The region of Heilbronn-Franconia in Baden-Württemberg
The lake of Großer Brombachsee. View over Ramsberg looking east towards the dam
The Steinerne Rinne near Rohrbach, Ettenstatt, county of Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen
Opened-up, copper-ore-bearing, Spessart crystalline rock in Sommerkahl near Aschaffenburg
Fine sandstone, siltstone and argillites of the bunter sandstone layer (Lower Triassic) in the Seltenbach Gorge in the Spessart
Tower-like rocks of Upper Jurassic-Corallian Limestone in Tüchersfeld, northern Franconian Jura (Franconian Switzerland)
Skull and forward cervical spine of Plateosaurus engelhardti, probably the replica of a skeleton from Ellingen
The so-called London Exemplar of Archaeopteryx (here a replica) comes from the Langenaltheim Quarry, west of Solnhofen.
The Celts built the mighty fortress of Menosgada on the Staffelberg
A 1990 replica of the Porta decumana of the Biriciana. View over the camp ring road
Franconian warrior's grave goods from the early mediaeval burial site of Westheim
Duchy of Franconia around 800
Franconia around 1200
Map of Franconia, 1642
Extent of the uprisings in the Peasants' War
Part of Wallenstein's camp around Zirndorf and the Alte Veste
The Franconian Imperial Circle in 1789
Destruction in Nuremberg in 1945 (Egidienplatz)
Destruction in Heilbronn in 1945
The Pellerhaus in Nuremberg was one of the most important buildings of the Renaissance period from 1605 until the destruction of its façade in 1945.
The administrative reform in Bavaria in the Franconian county of Ansbach
Distribution of the East Franconian dialects with transition zones
Rothenburg is one of the best known towns in Franconia
Schloss Langenburg (Baden-Württemberg) lies on the Castle Road
Walberla in Franconia
Water wheel at the Regnitz
Nuremberg is the largest city of Franconia
Aerial view of the Veste Coburg
Schäuferla
Three Nuremberger Bratwürste in a roll (Drei im Weckla)
Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask
Franconian wine is traditionally filled up in Bocksbeutels
Fried Carp with beer and salad

In order to protect cultural artefacts, the historic art bunker was built below Nuremberg Castle.

Intelligent design

Alternative term for creationism was in Of Pandas and People, a 1989 creationist textbook intended for high school biology classes.

Use of the terms "creationism" versus "intelligent design" in sequential drafts of the book Of Pandas and People.
The concept of irreducible complexity was popularised by Michael Behe in his 1996 book, Darwin's Black Box.
William A. Dembski proposed the concept of specified complexity.
The Discovery Institute's Center for the Renewal of Science and Culture used banners based on The Creation of Adam from the Sistine Chapel. Later it used a less religious image, then was renamed the Center for Science and Culture.

See also though proponents concede that they have yet to produce a scientific theory. As a positive argument against evolution, ID proposes an analogy between natural systems and human artifacts, a version of the theological argument from design for the existence of God. ID proponents then conclude by analogy that the complex features, as defined by ID, are evidence of design. Critics of ID find a false dichotomy in the premise that evidence against evolution constitutes evidence for design.

Helaman

In the Book of Mormon, there’s mention of three men named Helaman.

In his charge to Helaman, Alma recounts his own conversion, exhorts Helaman to righteousness, and confers stewardship of the sacred records and other artifacts (including the "interpreters", or Urim and Thummim).

Library management

Sub-discipline of institutional management that focuses on specific issues faced by libraries and library management professionals.

An organization chart for the United States Coast Guard shows the hierarchy of managerial roles in that organization.

These constructs include master catalogs, domain catalogs, indexes, unique identifiers, unique identifier tokens, and artifacts.

American Museum of Natural History

Natural history museum on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City.

Looking at the east entrance from Central Park West
Looking at the east entrance from Central Park West
Drawing of the AMNH south facade
The American Museum of Natural History was housed in the Arsenal from 1869 until 1877.
This building was built in 1874 and opened in 1877. Currently, this building houses (first floor to fourth floor) the Hall of Northwest Coast Indians, Hall of African Peoples, the Sanford Hall of North American Birds, and Hall of Vertebrate Origins.
This building was completed by the end of the 19th century. The buildings beside this one would be complete in the early 20th century. Currently, this building houses (first floor to fourth floor) the Grand Gallery, Birds of the World, Primates, and the Wallach Orientation Center.
The old Romanesque Revival-style 77th Street entrance
The Theodore Roosevelt Memorial Hall is the main ticketing lobby.
The Akeley Hall of African Mammals is named after Carl Akeley.
Akeley Hall of African Mammals
Carl Akeley mounts specimens for the "Lions" diorama
The "Plains" diorama in Akeley Hall
Gorilla diorama in Akeley Hall of African Mammals
Vernay-Faunthorpe Hall of Asian Mammals
The Indian rhinoceros diorama at Vernay-Faunthorpe Hall
The two Alaska Peninsula brown bears at the AMNH
Alaska moose diorama in the Hall of North American Mammals
The Cuthbert Rookery Diorama contains many of the birds once endangered by plume hunting
Mural of flamingo nesting grounds by Louis Agassiz Fuertes.
Great egret diorama, c.1901
The Komodo dragon diorama featuring a group feeding on a wild boar carcass in the Hall of Reptiles and Amphibians.
The Mixed Deciduous Forest diorama
The Juniper Forest diorama
"Spring" display in Warburg Hall
Model of a blue whale in the Milstein Family Hall of Ocean Life
Diorama depicting Pokot methods of animal husbandry
Spiritual costumes from a variety of African tribes
Zapotec burial urns from Monte Albán
The cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead was associated with the Museum for many years.
Kwakwaka'wakw House Posts
Nuxalk Masks
Cape York Meteorite
Willamette Meteorite
Hall of Saurischian Dinosaurs
Skeleton of Styracosaurus
Edmontosaurus annectens fossil skeletons
A display of various species of ground sloths (from left) Megalocnus rodens, Scelidotherium cuvieri, Megalonyx wheatleyi, Glossotherium robustus
Rose Center for Earth and Space
A matrix barcode that uniquely identifies a specimen in the museum's entomology collection.
A forced perspective, miniature diorama of Isfahan
A Yakut shaman performs a healing rite in this diorama
A range of costumes worn by women in Islamic Asia
Assorted faceted and polished minerals
Labradorite specimen
Quartz var. agate geode
Microcline specimen
Quartz var. amethyst geode
Bengal tiger at the American Museum of Natural History
Diorama in Akeley Hall of African Mammals
Diorama in Akeley Hall of African Mammals
Diorama in Akeley Hall of African Mammals
Butterfly Conservatory
Display in Milstein Hall of Ocean Life
Tibetan Vajrapani statue
Tibetan Kalachakra statue
The museum's south range, and some of the west façade, in the 1920s
American bison and pronghorn diorama (right)
Night view of the museum, looking northwest from across Central Park West
A fiberglass cast of a moai in the Margaret Mead Hall of Pacific Peoples

The museum collections contain over 34 million specimens of plants, animals, fossils, minerals, rocks, meteorites, human remains, and human cultural artifacts, as well as specialized collections for frozen tissue and genomic and astrophysical data, of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time.

Memetics

Study of information and culture based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution.

Charles Darwin in 1868

The second group wants to redefine memes as observable cultural artifacts and behaviors.

Mining

Extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef, or placer deposit.

Surface coal mining
Sulfur miner with sulfur carried from the floor of the Ijen Volcano (2015)
Malachite
Ancient Roman development of the Dolaucothi Gold Mines, Wales
Agricola, author of De Re Metallica
Gallery, 12th to 13th century, Germany
Lead mining in the upper Mississippi River region of the U.S., 1865
Miners at the Tamarack Mine in Copper Country, Michigan, U.S. in 1905.
A hose sprays water into a placer mine in Fairplay, Colorado, to assist with mining operations in the early 1900s. (Park County Local History Digital Archive)
View showing miners' clothes suspended by pulleys, also wash basins and ventilation system, Kirkland Lake, Ontario, 1936.
Schematic of a cut and fill mining operation in hard rock.
Underground longwall mining.
Coalburg Seam highwall mining at ADDCAR 16 Logan County WV
Mantrip used for transporting miners within an underground mine
Caterpillar Highwall Miner HW300 – Technology Bridging Underground and Open Pit Mining
The Bagger 288 is a bucket-wheel excavator used in strip mining. It is also one of the largest land vehicles of all time.
A Bucyrus Erie 2570 dragline and CAT 797 haul truck at the North Antelope Rochelle opencut coal mine
Iron hydroxide precipitate stains a stream receiving acid drainage from surface coal mining.
Location of waste rock storage (center) at Teghut (village) Copper-Molybdenum Mine in Armenia's northern Lori province.
The Särkijärvi pit of the apatite mine in Siilinjärvi, Finland
The Bingham Canyon Mine of Rio Tinto's subsidiary, Kennecott Utah Copper.
EITI Global Conference 2016
World Bank logo
Mining transport in Devnya, Bulgaria.
A coal miner in West Virginia spraying rockdust to reduce the combustible fraction of coal dust in the air.
Breaker boys: child workers who broke down coal at a mine in South Pittston, Pennsylvania, United States in the early 20th century
Chuquicamata, Chile, site of the largest circumference and second deepest open pit copper mine in the world.
Macro of native copper about 1 1⁄2 inches (4 cm) in size.
The Pyhäsalmi Mine, a metal mine in Pyhäjärvi, Finland
A metal recycling plant in South Carolina that has been abandoned for years.

Indigenous peoples used Lake Superior copper from at least 5,000 years ago; copper tools, arrowheads, and other artifacts that were part of an extensive native trade-network have been discovered.