A report on Cunco people

SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 40th and 41st parallel south. The Cunco inhabited the western (left) territory shown in the map. But not necessarily the northwest (top left).
SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 41st and 42nd parallel south. Much the mainland seen here north of Carelmapu and Calbuco was depopulated as a consequence of a long running conflict between the Spanish and loyalist Indians on one side and Cuncos and Huilliches on the other side.
Distribution of the pre-Hispanic people of Chile.

Poorly known subgroup of Huilliche people native to coastal areas of southern Chile and the nearby inland.

- Cunco people
SRTM map of the topography of Chile between the 40th and 41st parallel south. The Cunco inhabited the western (left) territory shown in the map. But not necessarily the northwest (top left).

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Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century

Huilliche people

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The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

The Huilliche, Huiliche or Huilliche-Mapuche are the southern partiality of the Mapuche macroethnic group of Chile.

Catiguala, a cacique of the Huilliche in the 18th century
Map showing indigenous peoples of Chile; the Huilliche are shaded peach, near the middle of the country.

Located in the Zona Sur, they inhabit both Futahuillimapu ("great land of the south") and, as the Cunco subgroup, the north half of Chiloé Island.

Chiloé Archipelago

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Group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.

Group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.

Location within Chile
A southern pudú, one of smallest deer in the world, amongst Chilean rhubarb on Isla San Pedro.
Darwin's fox (Lycalopex fulvipes) is endemic to the southern portion of the Chilean Coast Range.
Reconstruction of a dalca, a type of boat used by Chonos, Huilliches and Spaniards living in Chiloé
Nicolás Mascardi, shown here in the Cathedral of Bariloche, was among the Jesuits who used Chiloé as a starting point for exploration and missionary activity around Nahuel Huapi Lake
Territories controlled by Chile and the Viceroyalty of Perú after the Battle of Chacabuco of 1817. Chiloé and Valdivia were enclaves accessible only by sea.
This church near Chacao bears evidence of baroque and neoclassical elements introduced by clergy in colonial times.
Chiloé is a center of diversity of potatoes.
Fishing boats in Quellón. Corcovado Volcano in the background.

A theory postulated by chronicler José Pérez García holds that the Cuncos settled in Chiloé Island in Pre-Hispanic times as consequence of a push from more northern Huilliches, who in turn were being displaced by Mapuches.

Wreckage of San José

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The 1651 wreckage of San José and the subsequent killings and looting carried out by indigenous Cuncos was a defining event in Colonial Chile that contributed to Spanish-Cunco tensions that led to the Battle of Río Bueno and the Mapuche uprising of 1655.

Bueno River as seen from Chile Route 5.

Battle of Río Bueno (1654)

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Bueno River as seen from Chile Route 5.

The battle of Río Bueno (Batalla de Río Bueno or Desastre de Río Bueno) was fought in 1654 between the Spanish Army of Arauco and indigenous Cuncos and Huilliches of Fütawillimapu in southern Chile.

Mapuche uprising of 1655

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Series of coordinated Mapuche attacks against Spanish settlements and forts in colonial Chile.

Series of coordinated Mapuche attacks against Spanish settlements and forts in colonial Chile.

Peace was first compromised only two months later by a new episode in the Spanish–Cunco conflict.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.

Mapuche

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The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

The Mapuche ( (Mapuche & Spanish: )) are a group of indigenous inhabitants of present-day south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.

Lautaro, hero of the Arauco war; Rayén Quitral outstanding soprano; Current Mapuche woman; Ceferino Namuncura blessed of the Catholic Church.
Map of Mapuche territories according to Miguel Melin, Pablo Mansilla and Manuela Royo in MAPU CHILLKANTUKUN ZUGU: Descolonizando el Mapa del Wallmapu, Construyendo Cartografía Cultural en Territorio Mapuche.
Euler diagram of Mapuche ethicities. Historical denominations no longer in use are shown with white fields. Groups that adopted Mapuche language and culture or that have partial Mapuche descent are shown in the periphery of the main magenta-coloured field.
Huamán Poma de Ayala's picture of the confrontation between the Mapuches (left) and the Incas (right)
Painting El joven Lautaro of P. Subercaseaux, shows the military genius and expertise of his people.
Caupolican by Nicanor Plaza
Cornelio Saavedra Rodríguez in meeting with the main lonkos of Araucania in 1869
Ancient flag of the Mapuche on the Arauco War.
Mapuche activists killed in confrontations with the Chilean police in the 2000s.
Wenufoye flag created in 1992 by the indigenist organization "Consejo de Todas las Tierras".
Familia Mapuche, by Claudio Gay, 1848.
A council of Araucanian philosophers, 1904
The daughter of lonko Quilapán
Height of a chemamull (Mapuche funeral statue) compared to a person.
Traditional Mapuche poncho exhibited in Museo Artesanía Chilena.
Monument in the form of a gigantic clava mere okewa, located in Avenida Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva, Cañete, Chile
Drawing of a trapelacucha, a silver finery piece.
Painting by Raymond Monvoisin showing Elisa Bravo Jaramillo who was said to have survived the 1849 wreck of Joven Daniel to be then kidnapped by Mapuches.
Flag of Argentinian Tehuelche-Mapuche

South of there, the Huilliche and the Cunco lived as far south as the Chiloé Archipelago.

Francisco Antonio de Acuña Cabrera y Bayona

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Spanish soldier and governor of the Captaincy General of Chile between 1650 and 1656.

Spanish soldier and governor of the Captaincy General of Chile between 1650 and 1656.

Relations begun to strain when Cuncos, a southern Mapuche group, killed Spanish shipwreck survivors.

Ferry used between Chilean mainland and Chiloé Island.

Chiloé Island

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Largest island of the Chiloé Archipelago off the west coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean.

Largest island of the Chiloé Archipelago off the west coast of Chile, in the Pacific Ocean.

Ferry used between Chilean mainland and Chiloé Island.
Panoramic view of Castro.
4m-deep midden on the coast of Nercón, Fjord of Castro.
Reconstruction of a dalca in the museum of Dalcahue.
Abtao, Chiloé National Park
One of Chiloé's many wooden churches

When the Spanish conquistadores arrived on Chiloé Island in the 16th Century, the island was inhabited by the Chono, Huilliche and Cunco peoples.

Huilliche uprising of 1792

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Indigenous uprising against the Spanish penetration into Futahuillimapu, territory in southern Chile that had been de facto free of Spanish rule since 1602.

Indigenous uprising against the Spanish penetration into Futahuillimapu, territory in southern Chile that had been de facto free of Spanish rule since 1602.

In 1758 Huilliche chief Huarán requested Spanish soldiers to defend his lands against his Cunco enemies.

Futahuillimapu

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Traditional territory of the Huilliche people.

Traditional territory of the Huilliche people.

Back in the 18th century when this territory was free of foreign rule its western part, corresponding to the Chilean Coast Range and its foothills was inhabited by so-called Cuncos while proper Huilliches lived in the flatlands of the eastern portion corresponding to the Central Valley.