Cupeño

CupenoCupeño peopleCupeno Band of Mission IndiansCupeño language
The Cupeño are a Native American tribe of Southern California.wikipedia
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Morongo Band of Mission Indians

MorongoMorongo Indian ReservationMorongo Reservation
Today their descendants are members of the federally recognized tribes known as the Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, and Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians.
Tribal members also include Cupeño, Luiseño, and Chemehuevi Indians.

Pala Indian Reservation

Pala Band of Mission IndiansPalaPala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation, California
Today their descendants are members of the federally recognized tribes known as the Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, and Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians.
Its members, the federally recognized tribe of the Pala Band of Mission Indians, are descended from both Cupeño and Luiseño peoples, who have shared territory since 1901.

Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians

Los Coyotes BandLos Coyotes Band of Cahuilla & Cupeno Indians of the Los Coyotes Reservation, CaliforniaLos Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeño Indians
Today their descendants are members of the federally recognized tribes known as the Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, and Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians.
Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeño Indians of the Los Coyotes Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of Cahuilla and Cupeño Indians, who are Mission Indians located in California.

Warner Springs, California

Warner SpringsWarner's Ranch
Map of Cupeño villages with Warner Springs for reference
The Cupeño people were long time indigenous inhabitants of the Warner Springs area.

Juan Jose Warner

John Trumbull WarnerJonathan J. WarnerJonathan Trumbull Warner
After Mexico achieved independence, its government granted Juan Jose Warner, a naturalized American-Mexican citizen, nearly 45000 acre of the land on November 28, 1844.
Warner's ranch was a historic territory of the Cupeño Indians, who had inhabited the area for centuries before Spanish missionaries entered the area.

Cupeño language

Cupeñocup
The Cupeño language belongs to the Cupan group, which includes the Cahuilla and Luiseño languages.
Cupeño is an extinct Uto-Aztecan language, formerly spoken by the Cupeño people of Southern California, United States, who now speak English.

Roscinda Nolasquez

Roscinda Nolasquez (1892–1987) is considered the last truly fluent Cupeño speaker.
Roscinda Nolasquez (1892 – February 4, 1987) was a Cupeño, and the last speaker of the Cupeño language of Southern California.

John G. Downey

John Gately DowneyJohn DowneyGovernor Downey
In 1880, after numerous suits and countersuits, European-American John G. Downey acquired all titles to the main portion of Warner's Ranch.
In 1892 he moved to evict Cupeño American Indians who occupied some of the land as their traditional historic territory, especially near the hot springs (Agua Caliente.) The Cupeño challenged the eviction in a case that reached the US Supreme Court, but by the time it was decided in 1901, Downey had died.

California

CAState of CaliforniaCalifornia, USA
The Cupeño are a Native American tribe of Southern California.

Mexico–United States border

U.S.-Mexico borderMexican borderUnited States–Mexico border
They traditionally lived about 50 mi inland and 50 mi north of the modern day Mexico–United States border in the Peninsular Range of Southern California.

Southern California

southernSoCalCalifornia
They traditionally lived about 50 mi inland and 50 mi north of the modern day Mexico–United States border in the Peninsular Range of Southern California.

San Luis Rey River

Lake HenshawSan Luis Rey
The Cupeño people traditionally lived in the mountains in the San Jose Valley at the headwaters of the San Luis Rey River. On May 13, 1903, the Cupa Indians were forced to move to Pala, California on the San Luis Rey River, 75 mi away.

Lake Henshaw

Henshaw Dam
They also lived at Agua Caliente, located east of Lake Henshaw in an area crossed by State Highway 79 near Warner Springs.

List of highways numbered 79

79Highway 79National Highway 79
They also lived at Agua Caliente, located east of Lake Henshaw in an area crossed by State Highway 79 near Warner Springs.

Mexican–American War

Mexican-American WarMexican WarMexican American War
The Cupeño continued to reside at what the Spanish called Agua Caliente after the American occupation of California in 1847 to 1848, during the Mexican–American War.

United States Army Corps of Engineers

U.S. Army Corps of EngineersArmy Corps of EngineersCorps of Engineers
In observing the Cupeño's living conditions in 1846, W. H. Emory, brevet major with the United States Army Corps of Engineers, described the Indians as being held in a state of serfdom by Warner, and as being ill-treated.

Serfdom

serfserfsvillagers
In observing the Cupeño's living conditions in 1846, W. H. Emory, brevet major with the United States Army Corps of Engineers, described the Indians as being held in a state of serfdom by Warner, and as being ill-treated.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, CaliforniaLos Angeles, CALos Angeles, United States
In 1849, Warner was arrested by the American forces for consorting with the Mexican government and was taken to Los Angeles.

European Americans

European AmericanEuropean-AmericanEuropean
In 1851, because of several issues of conflict, Antonio Garra, a Cupeño from Warner's Ranch, tried to organize a coalition of various Southern California Indian tribes to drive out all of the European Americans.

Fodder

feedforagelivestock feed
After European contact and prior to the time of their eviction, the Cupeños sold milk, fodder, and some craftwork to travelers on the Southern Immigrant Trail, as well as to passengers on the stagecoaches of the Butterfield Overland Mail, which stopped at Warner's Ranch and passed through their valley.

Butterfield Overland Mail

Butterfield Overland StageButterfield StageOverland Mail
After European contact and prior to the time of their eviction, the Cupeños sold milk, fodder, and some craftwork to travelers on the Southern Immigrant Trail, as well as to passengers on the stagecoaches of the Butterfield Overland Mail, which stopped at Warner's Ranch and passed through their valley.

Aboriginal title in California

Barker v. HarveyCalifornia Land Claims ActCalifornia was different
Legal proceedings continued until 1903, when the court ruled in Barker v. Harvey against the Cupeño.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
The United States Government offered to buy new land for the Cupeño, but they refused.

Pala, California

PalaPala, California, USAPala Valley
On May 13, 1903, the Cupa Indians were forced to move to Pala, California on the San Luis Rey River, 75 mi away.