Cupola

White marble cupolas cap minarets at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan
Cupolas on the towers of Montefiascone Cathedral, Italy.
Interior of cupola ceiling in the old Synagogue of Győr, Hungary.
Ribbed cupola crowns the minaret of the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia.
Inside of Armenian Orthodox church cupola in Lviv, Ukraine.
Cupolas were also used on some old barns for ventilation.
View from the interior of the Cupola module on the International Space Station.
Trompe-l'œil painting of a cupola in a church in Northern Italy (Brivio)
A cupola-style caboose with an "angel seat" above

Relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.

- Cupola
White marble cupolas cap minarets at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan

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Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha

Architecture of India

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Hindu Temple basic floor design
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Qutb complex
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Kee monastery, Spiti
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
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Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
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Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Pari Mahal
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190228192141/https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/232/|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens

Indo-Islamic architecture style of Gujarat presages many of the architectural elements later found in Mughal architecture, including ornate mihrabs and minarets, jali (perforated screens carved in stone), and chattris (pavilions topped with cupolas).

The oculus at the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome

Oculus

Circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall.

Circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall.

The oculus at the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome
The Ancient Roman oculus of the Pantheon (Rome, Italy)
Islamic oculus opening into a cupola in the Hasht Behesht (Isfahan, Iran)
Romanesque oculus of the Église Sainte-Anne de Gassicourt (Mantes-la-Jolie, France)
Gothic oculus in the Laon Cathedral (Laon, France)
Renaissance oculus of the Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy)
Baroque oculus in a dome of the Ravenna Cathedral (Ravenna, Italy)
Rococo oculus in the Parc de Bagatelle (Paris)
Louis XVI round window of the Petit Trianon (Versailles, France), with a festoon-derived ornament at the top
Gothic Revival oculus of the Hannoversche Bank - Haus III on Georgstraße (Hannover, Germany)
19th century Eclectic Classicist oculus of the Opéra-Théâtre de Clermont-Ferrand (Clermont-Ferrand, France)
Beaux-Arts dormer oculus of the Building of Préfecture de Police de Paris (île de la Cité)
Art Nouveau oculus of the Hôtel Élysée Palace (Paris)
Art Deco oculus above a door in Angers (France)

Since the revival of dome construction beginning in the Italian Renaissance, open oculi have been replaced by light-transmitting cupolas and other round windows, openings, and skylights.

A Burlington Northern extended-vision caboose at the end of a train in 1993

Caboose

Crewed North American railroad car coupled at the end of a freight train.

Crewed North American railroad car coupled at the end of a freight train.

A Burlington Northern extended-vision caboose at the end of a train in 1993
A preserved Toronto, Hamilton, & Buffalo caboose car on exhibit at the Toronto Railway Historical Association
A retired wooden Grand Trunk Western Railroad caboose
The interior of an Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad caboose in 1943
An end-of-train device on a train in 2005
A Milwaukee Road cupola caboose at the US National Railroad Museum
The cupola section (vertical projection with window) on a restored caboose on exhibit at the Toronto Railway Historical Association
Seating area in a cupola caboose
A former Chicago & Northwestern Railway bay window caboose at the Illinois Railway Museum
An extended-vision caboose on static display in O'Fallon, Illinois
A Conrail transfer caboose
A two-axled "bobber" cupola caboose at the Colorado Railroad Museum, known for the uneven ride its lack of trucks created

The most common caboose form in American railroad practice has a small windowed projection on the roof, called the cupola.

Belvederes atop Blenheim Palace

Belvedere (structure)

Architectural structure sited to take advantage of a fine or scenic view.

Architectural structure sited to take advantage of a fine or scenic view.

Belvederes atop Blenheim Palace
Pashkov House crowned with a belvedere (Moscow, Russia)
thumb|A carousel in the Cortile del Belvedere, 1565.
thumb|Belvedere in the park of the  Glienicke Palace, in Berlin.
Tour du Belvédère, Mulhouse in Alsace
thumb|Gloriette de Buffon in the Jardin des plantes in Paris.
thumb|Haldon Belvedere, in Devon, UK.
thumb|Pashkov House in Moscow is dominated by a belvédère.
thumb|Patio of the Belvédère Palace in the Vatican.
Belvedere of Queen Anne's Summer Palace in the garden of Prague Castle (1538-1560)
Belvedere, Vienna
Il Belvedere on the Pfingstberg in Potsdam
Belvedere of the Vatican
Belevedere of the Villa Spada in Bologna
"Shrubs Hill Tower", Windsor Renamed "Fort Belvedere".
Johnson's Belvedere, Goat Tower in Texas
Belvedere Castle, Central Park, New York.

The actual structure can be of any form or style, including a turret, a cupola, or an open gallery.

The lantern over the dome of the Florence Baptistery, dated to 1150

Roof lantern

Daylighting architectural element.

Daylighting architectural element.

The lantern over the dome of the Florence Baptistery, dated to 1150
A cupola-shaped lantern on 16th-century Seville Cathedral, Andalusia, Spain
The 6th-century Hagia Sophia's upper dome acts as a roof lantern

More elaborate dwellings of the era showed a fondness for the roof lantern, in which the humble ceiling-window design of the skylight is elaborated into a miniature glass-paneled conservatory-style roof cupola or tower.