White marble cupolas cap minarets at the Tomb of Jahangir in Lahore, Pakistan
Cupolas on the towers of Montefiascone Cathedral, Italy.
Interior of cupola ceiling in the old Synagogue of Győr, Hungary.
Ribbed cupola crowns the minaret of the Mosque of Uqba, in Kairouan, Tunisia.
Inside of Armenian Orthodox church cupola in Lviv, Ukraine.
Cupolas were also used on some old barns for ventilation.
View from the interior of the Cupola module on the International Space Station.
Trompe-l'œil painting of a cupola in a church in Northern Italy (Brivio)
A cupola-style caboose with an "angel seat" above

Relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.

- Cupola

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Circular opening in the center of a dome or in a wall.

The oculus at the top of the dome of the Pantheon in Rome
The Ancient Roman oculus of the Pantheon (Rome, Italy)
Islamic oculus opening into a cupola in the Hasht Behesht (Isfahan, Iran)
Romanesque oculus of the Église Sainte-Anne de Gassicourt (Mantes-la-Jolie, France)
Gothic oculus in the Laon Cathedral (Laon, France)
Renaissance oculus of the Florence Cathedral (Florence, Italy)
Baroque oculus in a dome of the Ravenna Cathedral (Ravenna, Italy)
Rococo oculus in the Parc de Bagatelle (Paris)
Louis XVI round window of the Petit Trianon (Versailles, France), with a festoon-derived ornament at the top
Gothic Revival oculus of the Hannoversche Bank - Haus III on Georgstraße (Hannover, Germany)
19th century Eclectic Classicist oculus of the Opéra-Théâtre de Clermont-Ferrand (Clermont-Ferrand, France)
Beaux-Arts dormer oculus of the Building of Préfecture de Police de Paris (île de la Cité)
Art Nouveau oculus of the Hôtel Élysée Palace (Paris)
Art Deco oculus above a door in Angers (France)

Since the revival of dome construction beginning in the Italian Renaissance, open oculi have been replaced by light-transmitting cupolas and other round windows, openings, and skylights.

Roof lantern

Daylighting architectural element.

The lantern over the dome of the Florence Baptistery, dated to 1150
A cupola-shaped lantern on 16th-century Seville Cathedral, Andalusia, Spain
The 6th-century Hagia Sophia's upper dome acts as a roof lantern

More elaborate dwellings of the era showed a fondness for the roof lantern, in which the humble ceiling-window design of the skylight is elaborated into a miniature glass-paneled conservatory-style roof cupola or tower.


Crewed North American railroad car coupled at the end of a freight train.

A Burlington Northern extended-vision caboose at the end of a train in 1993
A preserved Toronto, Hamilton, & Buffalo caboose car on exhibit at the Toronto Railway Historical Association
A retired wooden Grand Trunk Western Railroad caboose
The interior of an Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad caboose in 1943
An end-of-train device on a train in 2005
A Milwaukee Road cupola caboose at the US National Railroad Museum
The cupola section (vertical projection with window) on a restored caboose on exhibit at the Toronto Railway Historical Association
Seating area in a cupola caboose
A former Chicago & Northwestern Railway bay window caboose at the Illinois Railway Museum
An extended-vision caboose on static display in O'Fallon, Illinois
A Conrail transfer caboose
A two-axled "bobber" cupola caboose at the Colorado Railroad Museum, known for the uneven ride its lack of trucks created

The most common caboose form in American railroad practice has a small windowed projection on the roof, called the cupola.

Belvedere (structure)

Architectural structure sited to take advantage of a fine or scenic view.

Belvederes atop Blenheim Palace
Pashkov House crowned with a belvedere (Moscow, Russia)
thumb|A carousel in the Cortile del Belvedere, 1565.
thumb|Belvedere in the park of the  Glienicke Palace, in Berlin.
Tour du Belvédère, Mulhouse in Alsace
thumb|Gloriette de Buffon in the Jardin des plantes in Paris.
thumb|Haldon Belvedere, in Devon, UK.
thumb|Pashkov House in Moscow is dominated by a belvédère.
thumb|Patio of the Belvédère Palace in the Vatican.
Belvedere of Queen Anne's Summer Palace in the garden of Prague Castle (1538-1560)
Belvedere, Vienna
Il Belvedere on the Pfingstberg in Potsdam
Belvedere of the Vatican
Belevedere of the Villa Spada in Bologna
"Shrubs Hill Tower", Windsor Renamed "Fort Belvedere".
Johnson's Belvedere, Goat Tower in Texas
Belvedere Castle, Central Park, New York.

The actual structure can be of any form or style, including a turret, a cupola, or an open gallery.

Architecture of India

Rooted in its history, culture and religion.

Royal cortege leaving Rajagriha
Dashavatara Temple, Deogarh is a Vishnu Hindu temple built during the early 6th century, near the end of the Gupta period.
The rock-cut Shore Temple of the temples in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu, 700–728. Showing the typical dravida form of tower.
Hindu Temple basic floor design
The ninth century temple in Barakar shows a tall curving shikhara crowned by a large amalaka and is an example of the early Pala style. It is similar to contemporaneous temples of Odisha.
Drawing of a pancharatha (5 ratha) plan of subsidiary shrines of Brahmeswara Temple
Palitana Jain Temples
Jain Temple complex, Deogarh, Uttar Pradesh, before 862
Temple ceiling of Ranakpur Jain Temple, Rajasthan
The Charminar, built in the 16th century by the Golconda Sultanate
Tomb of Muhammad Shah, Lodi Gardens
Qutb complex
Burial place of Ibrahim Adil Shah II
Tombs beside Tomb of Fatima Khanam
Firoze Minar at Gaur
Interior of the hypostyle hall of the Adina Mosque
Jama Masjid, Srinagar
The Golden Temple in Amritsar
Gurdwara Baba Atal is a 17th-century nine-storeyed Gurudwara in Amritsar
Shaniwarwada palace fort in Pune.
Kee monastery, Spiti
Cluster of temples in Bishnupur
Thakur Dalan of Itachuna Rajbari at Khanyan
Lotus Temple, Delhi Fariborz Sahba
Bimbisara visiting a bamboo garden in Rajagriha
Pari Mahal
Pointed arch, Mahabodhi temple, 6th–7th century CE, Late-Gupta period
Arches of Diwan-i-Khas, Red Fort, Delhi
Nav Toran Temple, Neemuch, Madhya Pradesh
Po Klong Garai Temple near Phan Rang
Angkor Wat
Wat Chaiwatthanaram, an example of Thai style prang
Masjid Ubudiah, showcasing elements of Indo-Saracenic style
Temples in Bagan
Ananda Temple terracotta plaque glazed in green
numerous rock-cut equivalents
A tetrastyle prostyle Gupta period temple at Sanchi besides the Apsidal hall with Maurya foundation, an example of Buddhist architecture. 5th century CE.
The Hindu Tigawa Temple, early 5th century.
The current structure of the Mahabodhi Temple dates to the Gupta era, 5th century CE. Marking the location where the Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment.
Vishnu temple in Eran, 5th-6th century
The Buddhagupta pillar at Eran (c.476–495 CE)
Detailed carving of elephant, Ranakpur Jain Temple
Rani Ki Vav, Gujrat
Somanath Temple
Adalaj stepwell
Taranga Jain Temple, Gujrat
Safdarjung's Tomb is built in the late Mughal style for Nawab Safdarjung. The tomb is described as the “last flicker in the lamp of Mughal architecture”
Tomb of I'timād-ud-Daulah is a Mughal mausoleum in Agra.It is noticeable for the first use of pietra dura technique. The tomb is often regarded as a draft of the Taj Mahal.
Shalimar Bagh is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake. The Bagh is considered the high point of Mughal horticulture.
Akbar's Tomb, Agra. Built with red sandstone by his son and grandson in 1605 to 1618.
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi, the first fully developed Mughal imperial tomb, 1569–70 CE<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=Humayun's Tomb, Delhi|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=2019-02-28|url-status=live|access-date=2019-02-28}}</ref>
Stupas in Thikse Monastery
Ralang Monastery, Sikkim
Tawang Monastery, Arunachal Pradesh
Tawang Monastery assembly hall
Prayer hall at the Golden Temple in Bylakuppe, a Tibetan settlement in Karnataka
The Chandannagar Strand Ghat, reminiscences of a French colony, Chandannagar, West Bengal
Fort Dansborg, built by the 17th century Danish admiral Ove Gjedde, reminiscences of Danish India, Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu
Tomb of Susanna Anna Maria, reminisces of Dutch India, Chinsurah, West Bengal
Church Of St Francis Of Assisi, reminisce of Portuguese India, Goa
French Quarter, Pondicherry. The city became the chief French settlement in India.
Nishat Bagh, Srinagar
Lal Bagh, Bengaluru
View of the Mughal Garden of Rashtrapati Bhavan
Waterfall at Rock Garden, Chandigarh
Char Bagh Garden, Rajasthan
The Athpula (eight piers) bridge in Lodi gardens

Indo-Islamic architecture style of Gujarat presages many of the architectural elements later found in Mughal architecture, including ornate mihrabs and minarets, jali (perforated screens carved in stone), and chattris (pavilions topped with cupolas).

Ellis Island

Federally owned island in New York Harbor, situated within the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, that was the busiest immigrant inspection and processing station in the United States.

The Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, seen from New York Water Taxi in New York Harbor, 2013
State border after New Jersey vs. New York, 1998
The bridge to Liberty State Park
Aerial view
Ellis Island buildings circa 1893
Anti-immigrant cartoon expressing opposition to the construction of Ellis Island (Judge, March 22, 1890)
First Ellis Island Immigrant Station, built in 1892 and destroyed 1897
Second Ellis Island Immigration Station (opened 1900) as seen in 1905
European immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1915
The main building's registry room
Radicals awaiting deportation, 1920
Seen from east. From left to right: contagious diseases ward; lawn; hospital; ferry basin; main building, kitchen, dormitory, and immigration building
Detail of ceiling of registry room
Entrance to the Main Building, seen from the south
Undated photo of southern facade of kitchen and laundry
View from the southeast; the baggage and dormitory (right) is east of the main building (left)
A Smith Drum laundry machine in the outbuilding
Isolation ward on island 3
Ellis Island Ferry Building
December 2014 aerial view of the area; in the foreground is Ellis Island, and behind it is Liberty State Park and Downtown Jersey City
Arrival, circa 1908 (photo by Lewis Hine)
Immigrants being inspected, 1904
Dormitory room for detained immigrants
Excerpt from a museum exhibit
Wall of Honor
Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital
Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island, 1902

Atop the corners of the building's central section are four towers capped by cupolas of copper cladding.

ETA (separatist group)

Acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna , was an armed Basque nationalist and separatist terrorist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna's symbol
ETA emblem
ETA members fire blanks during the Day of the Basque Soldier of 2006
A pro-ETA mural in Durango, Biscay
Graffiti in Pasaia (2003). "ETA, the people with you" on the left, and Batasuna using several nationalist symbols asking for "Independence!"
Memorial plate at the place of the assassination of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco
Banner in support of imprisoned ETA members, by Gestoras pro-Amnistía/Amnistiaren Aldeko Batzordeak ("Pro-Amnesty Managing Assemblies", currently illegal)
Barajas Airport parking lot after the bomb
Flowers and a plate remember Ertzaina officer José "Txema" Agirre, shot dead by ETA gunmen in 1997 while protecting the Guggenheim Bilbao Museum (visible in the background)
Repairs to the Balmaseda law courts after a bombing in 2006
A republican mural in Belfast showing solidarity with the Basque nationalism.

The taldes were coordinated by the cúpula militar ("military cupola").


State in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east.

The Twelve-Mile Circle
Map of Delaware
Sunset in Woodbrook, New Castle County, Delaware
The Blackbird Pond on the Blackbird State Forest Meadows Tract in New Castle County, Delaware
A field north of Fox Den Road, along the Lenape Trail in Middle Run Valley Natural Area
Delaware Köppen climate classification is humid subtropical.
Delaware population density map
Picking Peaches in Delaware, from an 1878 issue of Harper's Weekly
Rehoboth Beach is a popular vacation spot during the summer months.
Fort Delaware State Park on Pea Patch Island is a popular spot during the spring and summer. A ferry takes visitors to the fort from nearby Delaware City.
University of Delaware
Delaware's license plate design, introduced in 1959, is the longest-running one in U.S. history.
Delaware Route 1 (DE1) is a partial toll road linking Fenwick Island and Wilmington.
Cape May–Lewes Ferry
Wilmington Station
The Delaware General Assembly meets in the Legislative Hall in Dover.
Joe Biden, the 46th president of the United States and a U.S. senator for Delaware from 1973 to 2009.
NASCAR racing at Dover Motor Speedway

Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was originally defined by an arc extending 12 mi from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle.


Town and civil parish in the Malvern Hills District of Worcestershire, England.

The 'Pepperpot' – remains of the former church of St Peter and St Paul. Its nave was demolished in 1937.
The bridge at Upton-upon-Severn

The town has a distinctive tower and copper-clad cupola – known locally as the "Pepperpot" – the only surviving remnant of the former church.

Leonardo da Vinci

Italian polymath of the High Renaissance who was active as a painter, draughtsman, engineer, scientist, theorist, sculptor, and architect.

This portrait attributed to Francesco Melzi, c. 1515–1518, is the only certain contemporary depiction of Leonardo.
The possible birthplace and childhood home of Leonardo in Anchiano, Vinci, Italy
Adoration of the Magi c. 1478–1482, Uffizi, Florence
a 1473 pen-and-ink drawing
Virgin of the Rocks, c. 1483–1493, Louvre version
a drawing
The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist, c. 1499–1508, National Gallery, London
An apocalyptic deluge drawn in black chalk by Leonardo near the end of his life (part of a series of 10, paired with written description in his notebooks)
portrait of Leonardo
Drawing of the Château d'Amboise (c. 1518) attributed to Francesco Melzi
Saint John the Baptist c. 1507–1516, Louvre. Leonardo is thought to have used Salaì as the model.
Annunciation c. 1472–1476, Uffizi, is thought to be Leonardo's earliest extant and complete major work
Unfinished painting of Saint Jerome in the Wilderness c. 1480–1490, Vatican
Lady with an Ermine, c. 1489–1491, Czartoryski Museum, Kraków, Poland
The Last Supper, Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy (c. 1492–1498)
Mona Lisa or La Gioconda c. 1503–1516, Louvre, Paris
Presumed self-portrait of Leonardo (c. 1510) at the Royal Library of Turin, Italy.
Antique warrior in profile, c. 1472
A page showing Leonardo's study of a foetus in the womb (c. 1510), Royal Library, Windsor Castle
Rhombicuboctahedron as published in Pacioli's Divina proportione (1509)
Anatomical study of the arm (c. 1510)
Leonardo's physiological sketch of the human brain and skull (c. 1510)
Leonardo's drawings of a scythed chariot and a fighting vehicle.
Statue outside the Uffizi, Florence, by Luigi Pampaloni (1791–1847)
The Death of Leonardo da Vinci, by Ingres, 1818
Leonardo Museum in Vinci, which houses a large collection of models constructed on the basis of Leonardo's drawings.
Tomb in the chapel of Saint Hubert at the Château d'Amboise where a plaque describes it as the presumed site of Leonardo's remains.
Madonna of the Carnation, {{circa|1472–1478}}, Alte Pinakothek, Munich
Landscape of the Arno Valley (1473)
Ginevra de' Benci, {{circa|1474–1480}}, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.
Benois Madonna, {{circa|1478–1481}}, Hermitage, Saint Petersburg
Sketch of the hanging of Bernardo Bandini Baroncelli, 1479
Head of a Woman, {{circa|1483–1485}}, Royal Library of Turin
Portrait of a Musician, {{circa|1483–1487}}, Pinacoteca Ambrosiana, Milan
The Vitruvian Man ({{circa|1485}}) Accademia, Venice
Leonardo's horse in silverpoint, {{circa|1488}}{{sfn|Wallace|1972|p=65}}
La Belle Ferronnière, {{circa|1490–1498}}
thumb|Detail of 1902 restoration, trompe-l'œil painting (1498)
The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne, {{circa|1501–1519}}, Louvre, Paris
Leonardo's map of Imola, created for Cesare Borgia, 1502
Study for The Battle of Anghiari (now lost), {{circa|1503}}, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
La Scapigliata, {{circa|1506–1508}} (unfinished), Galleria Nazionale di Parma, Parma
Study for Leda and the Swan (now lost), {{circa|1506–1508}}, Chatsworth House, England

Leonardo was employed on many other projects for Sforza, including the preparation of floats and pageants for special occasions, and wooden model for a competition to design the cupola for Milan Cathedral (which he withdrew), and a model for a huge equestrian monument to Ludovico's predecessor Francesco Sforza.