Currency

currenciesforeign currencycoinagemonetary unitmeans of exchangebanknotesforeign currenciesspeciecoinscash
A currency (from, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.wikipedia
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United States dollar

$US$USD
Under this definition, US dollars, British pounds, Australian dollars, European euros and Russian ruble are examples of currency.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

Foreign exchange market

foreign exchangeforexcurrency exchange
These various currencies are recognized as stores of value and are traded between nations in foreign exchange markets, which determine the relative values of the different currencies.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

Money

monetaryspeciecash
A currency (from, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. With coins, banknotes make up the cash form of all money.
The money supply of a country consists of currency (banknotes and coins) and, depending on the particular definition used, one or more types of bank money (the balances held in checking accounts, savings accounts, and other types of bank accounts).

Fiat money

fiat currencyfiatfiat currencies
Currencies can be classified into two monetary systems: fiat money and commodity money, depending on what guarantees the value (the economy at large vs. the government's physical metal reserves). In most cases, a central bank has a monopoly right to issue of coins and banknotes (fiat money) for its own area of circulation (a country or group of countries); it regulates the production of currency by banks (credit) through monetary policy.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.

Legal tender

demonetizationdemonetizedtender
Some currencies are legal tender in certain political jurisdictions.
Paper currency and coins are common forms of legal tender in many countries.

Digital currency

electronic moneydigital currencieselectronic purse
Digital currency has arisen with the popularity of computers and the Internet.
Digital currency (digital money, electronic money or electronic currency) is a type of currency available in digital form (in contrast to physical, such as banknotes and coins).

Numismatics

numismaticnumismatistnumismatists
Archimedes' principle provided the next link: coins could now be easily tested for their fine weight of metal, and thus the value of a coin could be determined, even if it had been shaved, debased or otherwise tampered with (see Numismatics).
Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money and related objects.

Medium of exchange

mediums of exchangeexchange mediumfreely exchangeable for goods
A currency (from, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Although the unit of account must be in some way related to the medium of exchange in use, e.g. coinage should be in denominations of that unit making accounting much easier to perform, it has often been the case that media of exchange have no natural relationship to that unit, and must be 'minted' or in some way marked as having that value.

Debasement

debaseddebasedebasing
Silver coins were used for midsized transactions, and as a unit of account for taxes, dues, contracts and fealty, while coins of copper, silver, or some mixture thereof (see debasement), were used for everyday transactions.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.

Coinage of India

coinageIndian coinsIndia
This system had been used in ancient India since the time of the Mahajanapadas.
What is known, however, is that metal currency was minted in India well before the Mauryan Empire (322–185 BCE), and as radio carbon dating indicates, before the 5th century BCE.

Barter

barter economybarteringbarter trade
African currency is still notable for its variety, and in many places various forms of barter still apply.
Market actors use barter as a replacement for money as the method of exchange in times of monetary crisis, such as when currency becomes unstable (e.g., hyperinflation or a deflationary spiral) or simply unavailable for conducting commerce.

Dinar

dinarsdenarArab Dinar
At around the same time in the medieval Islamic world, a vigorous monetary economy was created during the 7th–12th centuries on the basis of the expanding levels of circulation of a stable high-value currency (the dinar).
The dinar is the principal currency unit in several countries and was used historically in several more.

Banknote

paper moneybanknotespaper currency
A currency (from, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Counterfeiting, the forgery of banknotes, is an inherent challenge in issuing currency.

Coin

coinsspecieexergue
A currency (from, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins. With coins, banknotes make up the cash form of all money.
Coins came late to the Roman Republic compared with the rest of the Mediterranean, especially Greece and Asia Minor where coins were invented in the 7th century BC. The currency of central Italy was influenced by its natural resources, with bronze being abundant (the Etruscans were famous metal workers in bronze and iron) and silver ore being scarce.

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianEgyptians
Originally money was a form of receipt, representing grain stored in temple granaries in Sumer in ancient Mesopotamia and later in Ancient Egypt.
Although the ancient Egyptians did not use coinage until the Late period, they did use a type of money-barter system, with standard sacks of grain and the deben, a weight of roughly 91 g of copper or silver, forming a common denominator.

Mint (facility)

mintmintedmints
Major nations established mints to print money and mint coins, and branches of their treasury to collect taxes and hold gold and silver stock.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

Bimetallism

bimetallicbimetallic standardbimetalism
The parallel use of both metals is called bimetallism, and the attempt to create a bimetallic standard where both gold and silver backed currency remained in circulation occupied the efforts of inflationists.
Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.

ISO 4217

codecurrency codeISO 4217 currency code
Currently, the International Organization for Standardization has introduced a three-letter system of codes (ISO 4217) to define currency (as opposed to simple names or currency signs), in order to remove the confusion that there are dozens of currencies called the dollar and many called the franc.
ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables:

Cash

bag of stolen moneycash incomeCASH n.1
With coins, banknotes make up the cash form of all money.
In economics, cash is money in the physical form of currency, such as banknotes and coins.

Dollar

$dollarsUS$
Currently, the International Organization for Standardization has introduced a three-letter system of codes (ISO 4217) to define currency (as opposed to simple names or currency signs), in order to remove the confusion that there are dozens of currencies called the dollar and many called the franc.
Dollar (often represented by the dollar sign $) is the name of more than 20 currencies, including those of Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Jamaica, Liberia, Namibia, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States, whose US dollar is also the official currency of Caribbean Netherlands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Palau, Panama, and Zimbabwe.

Franc

francsBelgian francs
Currently, the International Organization for Standardization has introduced a three-letter system of codes (ISO 4217) to define currency (as opposed to simple names or currency signs), in order to remove the confusion that there are dozens of currencies called the dollar and many called the franc.
The franc is the name of several currency units.

Pound (currency)

£poundpounds
Even the pound is used in nearly a dozen different countries; most of these are tied to the Pound Sterling, while the remainder have varying values.
The pound is a unit of currency in some nations.

Inflation

inflation rateprice inflationfood inflation
The parallel use of both metals is called bimetallism, and the attempt to create a bimetallic standard where both gold and silver backed currency remained in circulation occupied the efforts of inflationists.
Rapid increases in quantity of the money or in the overall money supply (or debasement of the means of exchange) have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used.

Central bank

central bankscentral bankingcentral banking system
In most cases, a central bank has a monopoly right to issue of coins and banknotes (fiat money) for its own area of circulation (a country or group of countries); it regulates the production of currency by banks (credit) through monetary policy.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

Fixed exchange-rate system

fixed exchange ratepeggedfixed
Exchange rates can be classified as either floating or fixed.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime in which a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, a basket of other currencies, or another measure of value, such as gold.