# Cynthia Dwork

**DworkC. Dwork**

Cynthia Dwork (born 1958) is an American computer scientist at Harvard University, where she is Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, Radcliffe Alumnae Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and Affiliated Professor, Harvard Law School.wikipedia

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### Differential privacy

**privacy-preserving**

Dwork is known for her research placing privacy-preserving data analysis on a mathematically rigorous foundation, including the co-invention of differential privacy, a strong privacy guarantee frequently permitting highly accurate data analysis (with McSherry, Nissim, and Smith, 2006).

In 2006 Cynthia Dwork, Frank McSherry, Kobbi Nissim and Adam D. Smith published an article formalizing the amount of noise that needed to be added and proposing a generalized mechanism for doing so.

### Proof-of-work system

**proof-of-workproof of workreusable proof of work**

With Naor she also first presented the idea of, and a technique for, combating e-mail spam by requiring a proof of computational effort, also known as proof-of-work - a key technology underlying hashcash and bitcoin.

The concept was invented by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor as presented in a 1993 journal article.

### Hashcash

With Naor she also first presented the idea of, and a technique for, combating e-mail spam by requiring a proof of computational effort, also known as proof-of-work - a key technology underlying hashcash and bitcoin.

A similar idea was first proposed by Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor and Eli Ponyatovski in their 1992 paper "Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail", but using weakened signature schemes rather than the simpler and more efficient hash-based approach introduced in hashcash.

### John Hopcroft

**HopcroftHopcroft, John E.John E. Hopcroft**

Dwork received her Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1983 for research supervised by John Hopcroft.

### Miklós Ajtai

**AjtaiAjtai, Miklós**

Her contributions in cryptography include Nonmalleable Cryptography with Danny Dolev and Moni Naor in 1991, the first lattice-based cryptosystem with Miklós Ajtai in 1997, which was also the first public-key cryptosystem for which breaking a random instance is as hard as solving the hardest instance of the underlying mathematical problem ("worst-case/average-case equivalence").

Ajtai and Dwork devised in 1997 a lattice-based public-key cryptosystem; Ajtai has done extensive work on lattice problems.

### Debórah Dwork

**Dwork, Deborah**

Dwork is the daughter of American mathematician Bernard Dwork, and sister of historian Debórah Dwork.

Dwork is the daughter of mathematician Bernard Dwork, and sister of computer scientist Cynthia Dwork.

### Bernard Dwork

**DworkDwork, Bernard**

Dwork is the daughter of American mathematician Bernard Dwork, and sister of historian Debórah Dwork.

He is the father of computer scientist Cynthia Dwork, who received the Dijkstra Prize and is now continuing as a Radcliffe Scholar at Harvard University.

### Gödel Prize

2017 Gödel Prize was awarded to Cynthia Dwork, Frank McSherry, Kobbi Nissim and Adam Smith for their seminal paper that introduced differential privacy.

### Computer scientist

**computer science professioncomputer-scientist**

Cynthia Dwork (born 1958) is an American computer scientist at Harvard University, where she is Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, Radcliffe Alumnae Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and Affiliated Professor, Harvard Law School.

### Harvard University

**HarvardHarvard CollegeHarvard University’s**

Cynthia Dwork (born 1958) is an American computer scientist at Harvard University, where she is Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, Radcliffe Alumnae Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and Affiliated Professor, Harvard Law School.

### Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study

**Radcliffe InstituteBunting InstituteRadcliffe Fellow**

Cynthia Dwork (born 1958) is an American computer scientist at Harvard University, where she is Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science, Radcliffe Alumnae Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and Affiliated Professor, Harvard Law School.

### Harvard Law School

**HarvardHarvard LawHarvard University**

### Microsoft Research

**MicrosoftMicrosoft Research CambridgeMicrosoft Research Labs**

She is a distinguished scientist at Microsoft Research.

### Princeton University

**PrincetonCollege of New JerseyPrinceton College**

Dwork received her B.S.E. from Princeton University in 1979, graduating Cum Laude, and receiving the Charles Ira Young Award for Excellence in Independent Research.

### Cornell University

**CornellCornell University PressCornell Cooperative Extension**

Dwork received her Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1983 for research supervised by John Hopcroft.

### Cryptography

**cryptographiccryptographercryptology**

Dwork has also made contributions in cryptography and distributed computing, and is a recipient of the Edsger W. Dijkstra Prize for her early work on the foundations of fault-tolerant systems.

### Distributed computing

**distributeddistributed systemsdistributed system**

Dwork has also made contributions in cryptography and distributed computing, and is a recipient of the Edsger W. Dijkstra Prize for her early work on the foundations of fault-tolerant systems.

### Dijkstra Prize

**Edsger W. Dijkstra Prize in Distributed ComputingEdsger W. Dijkstra PrizePODC Influential Paper Award**

Dwork has also made contributions in cryptography and distributed computing, and is a recipient of the Edsger W. Dijkstra Prize for her early work on the foundations of fault-tolerant systems.

### Fault tolerance

**fault-tolerantfault tolerantfault-tolerance**

### Malleability (cryptography)

**malleablemalleabilitynon-malleable cryptography**

Her contributions in cryptography include Nonmalleable Cryptography with Danny Dolev and Moni Naor in 1991, the first lattice-based cryptosystem with Miklós Ajtai in 1997, which was also the first public-key cryptosystem for which breaking a random instance is as hard as solving the hardest instance of the underlying mathematical problem ("worst-case/average-case equivalence").

### Danny Dolev

Her contributions in cryptography include Nonmalleable Cryptography with Danny Dolev and Moni Naor in 1991, the first lattice-based cryptosystem with Miklós Ajtai in 1997, which was also the first public-key cryptosystem for which breaking a random instance is as hard as solving the hardest instance of the underlying mathematical problem ("worst-case/average-case equivalence").

### Moni Naor

**M. NaorNaor**

### Lattice-based cryptography

**lattice-basedLattice-based cryptosystemslattice-based cryptographic schemes**

### Public-key cryptography

**public keypublic key cryptographyprivate key**

### Email spam

**spame-mail spamspam email**

With Naor she also first presented the idea of, and a technique for, combating e-mail spam by requiring a proof of computational effort, also known as proof-of-work - a key technology underlying hashcash and bitcoin.