A report on TurkeyCyprus and Greece

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
The entrance of the Treasury of Atreus (13th BC) in Mycenae
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (750–550 BC)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens, icon of classical Greece.
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Map of Alexander's short-lived empire (334–323 BC). After his death the lands were divided between the Diadochi
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 100 BC) is considered to be the first known mechanical analog computer (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
A view from the ancient royal Macedonian tombs in Vergina
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built in 161 AD
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
Dome of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki (8th century), one of the 15 UNESCO's Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of the city
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, originally built in the late 7th century as a Byzantine citadel and beginning from 1309 used by the Knights Hospitaller as an administrative centre
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
A map showing the division of Cyprus
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire after the death of Basil II in 1025
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
The Byzantine castle of Angelokastro successfully repulsed the Ottomans during the First Great Siege of Corfu in 1537, the siege of 1571, and the Second Great Siege of Corfu in 1716, causing them to abandon their plans to conquer Corfu.
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, one of the best-known Ottoman structures remaining in Greece.
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
The sortie (exodus) of Messolonghi, depicting the Third Siege of Missolonghi, painted by Theodoros Vryzakis.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
The Battle of Navarino in 1827 secured Greek independence.
Topographic map of Turkey
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, painted by Peter von Hess in 1839.
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
The territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1947.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Hellenic Army formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris, July 1919.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Dhekelia Power Station
Map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos as its supervising genius.
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
The Axis occupation of Greece.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Supreme Court of Justice
People in Athens celebrate the liberation from the Axis powers, October 1944. Postwar Greece would soon experience a civil war and political polarization.
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Signing at Zappeion by Constantine Karamanlis of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
Central Bank of Cyprus
Navagio (shipwreck) bay, Zakynthos island
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
The Greek mainland and several small islands seen from Nydri, Lefkada
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Limassol General Hospital
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and mythical abode of the Gods of Olympus
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
The building of the Hellenic Parliament (Old Royal Palace) in central Athens.
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first governor, founder of the modern Greek State, and distinguished European diplomat
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
2010 population by age and gender
Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister since 2019
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Representation through: 
 embassy
 embassy in another country
 general consulate
 no representation
 Greece
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
GDP per capita development
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
A proportional representation of Greece exports, 2019
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Greece's debt percentage since 1977, compared to the average of the Eurozone
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Solar-power generation potential in Greece
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Greek companies control 16.2% of the world's total merchant fleet making it the largest in the world. They are ranked in the top 5 for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Cypriot meze
Santorini, a popular tourist destination, is ranked as the world's top island in many travel magazines and sites.
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Cypriot Halloumi
The Rio–Antirrio bridge connects mainland Greece to the Peloponnese.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
Georgios Papanikolaou, a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
Hermoupolis, on the island of Syros, is the capital of the Cyclades.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
Population pyramid of Greece in 2017
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
Our Lady of Tinos
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.
Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Today, Greek is the dominant language throughout the country.
A map of the fifty countries with the largest Greek diaspora communities.
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Ionian Academy in Corfu, the first academic institution of modern Greece.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, still used for theatrical plays.
Close-up of the Charioteer of Delphi, a celebrated statue from the 5th century BC.
Towerhouses of Vatheia in Mani peninsula
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece
Parnassos Literary Society, painted by Georgios Roilos (Kostis Palamas is at the center)
A statue of Plato in Athens.
Cretan dancers of traditional folk music
Rebetes in Karaiskaki, Piraeus (1933). Left Markos Vamvakaris with bouzouki.
Mikis Theodorakis was one of the most popular and significant Greek composers
A Greek salad, with feta and olives.
Theodoros Angelopoulos, winner of the Palme d'Or in 1998, notable director in the history of the European cinema
Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon; 1896 Summer Olympics.
Angelos Charisteas scoring Greece's winning goal in the UEFA Euro 2004 Final
The Greek national basketball team in 2008. Twice European champions (1987 and 2005) and second in the world in 2006
Procession in honor of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (15 August)

It shares borders with the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest.

- Turkey

Cyprus is located off the south coast.

- Turkey

It is the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is south of Turkey and west of Syria.

- Cyprus

Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast.

- Greece

From the 19th century onwards, the Greek Cypriot population pursued enosis, union with Greece, which became a Greek national policy in the 1950s.

- Cyprus

While most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands was under Ottoman control by the end of the 15th century, Cyprus and Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall to the Ottomans until 1571 and 1670 respectively.

- Greece

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.

Turkish people

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A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
West Thrace Republic, Turks in Kardzali
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara in the 1950s
Turkish people at the 2007 Republic Protests in the capital city of Ankara supporting the principle of state secularism.
Percentage of Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria by Province (2011)
Turkish Meskhetians wearing T-shirts that read: 14 November 1944, We have not forgotten the deportation.
An Iraqi Turkmen girl in traditional Turkish costume.
As of 2020, the Turks in Germany number between 4 million and 7 million (i.e. 5–9% of Germany's population). With approximately 2 million Turks in Berlin, the German capital is the largest Turkish populated city outside Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introducing the modern Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri in 1928.
The flag of the Centar Župa Municipality in North Macedonia is labelled with Macedonian and Turkish writing in its central banner.
A bilingual road sign (Turkish and Arabic) in Iraq.
The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, is an example of Ottoman imperial architecture.
The Hala Sultan Tekke in Larnaca, Cyprus, is an example of Ottoman provincial architecture. As the resting place of Umm Haram, it is one of the holiest sites in Islam and an important pilgrimage site for the largely secular Turkish Cypriot community.
The neo-Ottoman Cologne Central Mosque in Cologne is the largest mosque in Germany, and mostly serves the Turkish German community.
The neo-Ottoman Westermoskee in Amsterdam is the largest mosque in the Netherlands, and mostly serves the Turkish Dutch community.
Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.

The Turkish people, or simply the Turks (Türkler), are the world's largest Turkic ethnic group; they speak various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

They also form substantial communities in the Western Thrace region of Greece, the Dobruja region of Romania, the Akkar region in Lebanon, as well as minority groups in other post-Ottoman Balkan and Middle Eastern countries.

The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"

Turkish language

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Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"
The 15th century Book of Dede Korkut
An advertisement by the IKEA branch in Berlin written in the German and Turkish languages.
Map of the main subgroups of Turkish dialects across Southeast Europe and the Middle East.
Vowels of Turkish. From
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Istanbul Marathon in 2006)
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
A Turkish computer keyboard with Q (QWERTY) layout.

It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

Significant smaller groups of Turkish speakers exist in Iraq, Syria, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia.

In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Iraq, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), the Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

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Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

Its west–east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southeastern coast of Turkey, is about 4000 km. The north–south length varies greatly between different shorelines and whether only straight routes are considered.

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.

Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook. Southeastern Europe in brown

Southeast Europe

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Geographical subregion of Europe, consisting primarily of the Balkans.

Geographical subregion of Europe, consisting primarily of the Balkans.

Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook. Southeastern Europe in brown

Sovereign states and territories that are included in the region are, in alphabetical order: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia (alternatively placed in Central Europe or Southern Europe), Cyprus (alternatively placed in West Asia), Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania (alternatively placed in Central Europe or Eastern Europe), Serbia, and Turkey (alternatively placed in West Asia).

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus

Cyprus problem

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Ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

Ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus
A Greek Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of Enosis (union) with Greece
The "Green Line" in Nicosia, Cyprus.
The north–south checkpoint has been open since 2003
Proposed flag of the United Republic of Cyprus
Former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan was the creator of the Annan plan.
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006
Opening of Ledra Street in April 2008
Greek Cypriot negotiator Andreas Mavroyiannis and the Turkish Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs Feridun Sinirlioğlu, in Ankara, within the scope of the 2014 Cyprus talks
Under the control of the Republic of Cyprus
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Turkey
Greece

The international complications of the dispute stretch beyond the boundaries of the island of Cyprus itself and involve the guarantor powers under the Zürich and London Agreement (Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), the United Nations, and the European Union, along with (unofficially) the United States and formerly the interference of Czechoslovakia and the Eastern Bloc.

Although the Republic of Cyprus is recognised by the international community as the sole legitimate state, the north is under the de facto administration of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, on which the Turkish Armed Forces are stationed.

Flag

Council of Europe

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International organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

International organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

Flag
Flag
Plaque commemorating the first session of the Council of Europe Assembly at Strasbourg University
Session of the Council of Europe's Parliamentary Assembly in the former House of Europe in Strasbourg in 1967. Willy Brandt, German Minister for Foreign Affairs, is speaking.
Winston Churchill's inaugural speech of the Council of Europe in The Hague
Council's Parliamentary Assembly hemicycle
European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines.
Aerial shot of the Palais de l'Europe in Strasbourg
Council of Europe's Agora building

It was signed in London on that day by ten states: Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, though Turkey and Greece joined three months later.

Joining later were Austria (1956), Cyprus (1961), Switzerland (1963), Malta (1965), and Portugal (1976).