A report on TurkeyCyprus and Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
A map showing the division of Cyprus
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Topographic map of Turkey
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Dhekelia Power Station
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
An Ottoman trial, 1877
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Supreme Court of Justice
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
Central Bank of Cyprus
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Limassol General Hospital
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
2010 population by age and gender
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Cypriot meze
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Cypriot Halloumi
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun
Dome of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne.
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.

Cyprus is located off the south coast.

- Turkey

It is the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is south of Turkey and west of Syria.

- Cyprus

Beginning in the late 13th century, the Ottomans united the principalities and conquered the Balkans, and the Turkification of Anatolia increased during the Ottoman period.

- Turkey

The successful Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against the occupying Allies, led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

- Ottoman Empire

Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus.

- Cyprus

British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli advocated for restoring the Ottoman territories on the Balkan Peninsula during the Congress of Berlin, and in return, Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus in 1878.

- Ottoman Empire

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Syria

3 links

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
Ishqi-Mari, king of the Second Kingdom of Mari, circa 2300 BC.
Amrit Phoenician Temple
Ancient city of Palmyra before the war
Roman Theatre at Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria
Temple of Jupiter, Damascus
The ancient city of Apamea, an important commercial center and one of Syria's most prosperous cities in classical antiquity
Umayyad fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century
The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.
Syrian women, 1683
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Ottoman Syria labelled as "Al Sham" in yellow
Armenian deportees near Aleppo during the Armenian genocide, 1915
The inauguration of President Hashim al-Atassi in 1936
Syrian rebels in Ghouta during the Great Syrian Revolt against French colonial rule in the 1920s
Aleppo in 1961
Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.
Military situation in the Lebanese Civil War, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria
A Syrian Army soldier manning a checkpoint outside of Damascus shortly after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, 2012
Diplomatic missions of Syria
Map of world and Syria (red) with military involvement.
The Syrian Golan Heights occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Syria, since 1820
Aleppo soap
Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus in 2010
A cove in Latakia in 2014
Oil refinery in Homs
Expressway M5 near Al-Rastan
Damascus, traditional clothing
The ethno-religious composition of Syria
Great Mosque of Aleppo, Aleppo
Our Lady of Saidnaya Monastery in Saidnaya, Rif Dimashq
Damascus University headquarters in Baramkeh
UIS adult literacy rate of Syria
Dabke combines circle dance and line dancing and is widely performed at weddings and other joyous occasions.
Adunis
Aleppo International Stadium
Fattoush, a Syrian bread salad

It is a unitary republic that consists of 14 governorates (subdivisions), and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east and southeast, Jordan to the south, and Israel and Lebanon to the southwest.

Cyprus lies to the west across the Mediterranean Sea.

After a period as a French mandate (1923–1946), the newly created state represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces.

A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.

Turkish people

3 links

A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
West Thrace Republic, Turks in Kardzali
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara in the 1950s
Turkish people at the 2007 Republic Protests in the capital city of Ankara supporting the principle of state secularism.
Percentage of Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria by Province (2011)
Turkish Meskhetians wearing T-shirts that read: 14 November 1944, We have not forgotten the deportation.
An Iraqi Turkmen girl in traditional Turkish costume.
As of 2020, the Turks in Germany number between 4 million and 7 million (i.e. 5–9% of Germany's population). With approximately 2 million Turks in Berlin, the German capital is the largest Turkish populated city outside Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introducing the modern Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri in 1928.
The flag of the Centar Župa Municipality in North Macedonia is labelled with Macedonian and Turkish writing in its central banner.
A bilingual road sign (Turkish and Arabic) in Iraq.
The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, is an example of Ottoman imperial architecture.
The Hala Sultan Tekke in Larnaca, Cyprus, is an example of Ottoman provincial architecture. As the resting place of Umm Haram, it is one of the holiest sites in Islam and an important pilgrimage site for the largely secular Turkish Cypriot community.
The neo-Ottoman Cologne Central Mosque in Cologne is the largest mosque in Germany, and mostly serves the Turkish German community.
The neo-Ottoman Westermoskee in Amsterdam is the largest mosque in the Netherlands, and mostly serves the Turkish Dutch community.
Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.

The Turkish people, or simply the Turks (Türkler), are the world's largest Turkic ethnic group; they speak various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

In addition, centuries-old ethnic Turkish communities still live across other former territories of the Ottoman Empire.

The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean.

French medal commemorating the Franco-Turkish War in Cilicia, circa 1920

Levant

3 links

Approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia.

Approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia.

French medal commemorating the Franco-Turkish War in Cilicia, circa 1920
1909 postcard depicting Ottoman Constantinople and bearing a French stamp inscribed "Levant"
Satellite view of the Levant including Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Jordan and the Northern Sinai
Prince from Lebanon and Muslim from Damascus, late 19th century
Map representing the distribution of the Arabic dialects in the area of the Levant

In its narrowest sense, which is in use today in archaeology and other cultural contexts, it is equivalent to a stretch of land bordering the Mediterranean in southwestern Asia, i.e. the historical region of Syria ("greater Syria"), which includes present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and most of Turkey southwest of the middle Euphrates.

In 1581, England set up the Levant Company to monopolize commerce with the Ottoman Empire.

The term is also used for modern events, peoples, states or parts of states in the same region, namely Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey are sometimes considered Levant countries (compare with Near East, Middle East, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia).

Map of the Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

2 links

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.

Map of the Mediterranean Sea
Greek (red) and Phoenician (yellow) colonies in antiquity c. the 6th century BC
The Roman Empire at its farthest extent in AD 117
The Battle of Lepanto, 1571, ended in victory for the European Holy League against the Ottoman Turks.
The bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet in support of an ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Borders of the Mediterranean Sea
Approximate extent of the Mediterranean drainage basin (dark green). Nile basin only partially shown
Map of the Mediterranean Sea from open Natural Earth data, 2020
Alexandria, the largest city on the Mediterranean
Barcelona, the second largest metropolitan area on the Mediterranean Sea (after Alexandria) and the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean
The Acropolis of Athens with the Mediterranean Sea in the background
The ancient port of Jaffa (now in Tel Aviv-Yafo), from which the biblical Jonah set sail before being swallowed by a whale
Catania, Sicily, Italy, with Mount Etna in the background
İzmir, the third metropolis of Turkey (after Istanbul and Ankara)
Africa (left, on horizon) and Europe (right), as seen from Gibraltar
Positano, Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea
View of the Saint George Bay, and snow-capped Mount Sannine from a tower in the Beirut Central District
The Port of Marseille seen from L'Estaque
Sarandë, Albania, stands on an open-sea gulf of the Ionian sea in the central Mediterranean.
The two biggest islands of the Mediterranean: Sicily and Sardinia (Italy)
Predominant surface currents for June
A submarine karst spring, called vrulja, near Omiš; observed through several ripplings of an otherwise calm sea surface.
Messinian salinity crisis before the Zanclean flood
The thermonuclear bomb that fell into the sea recovered off Palomares, Almería, 1966
Stromboli volcano in Italy
The reticulate whipray is one of the species that colonised the Eastern Mediterranean through the Suez Canal as part of the ongoing Lessepsian migration.
A cargo ship cruises towards the Strait of Messina
Port of Trieste
Kemer Beach in Antalya on the Turkish Riviera (Turquoise Coast). In 2019, Turkey ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country.
Coast of Alexandria, view From Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt
Beach of Hammamet, Tunisia
The beach of la Courtade in the Îles d'Hyères, France
Sardinia's south coast, Italy
Pretty Bay, Malta
Panoramic view of Piran, Slovenia
Panoramic view of Cavtat, Croatia
View of Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina
A view of Sveti Stefan, Montenegro
Ksamil Islands, Albania
Navagio, Greece
Ölüdeniz, Turquoise Coast, Turkey
Paphos, Cyprus
Burj Islam Beach, Latakia, Syria
A view of Raouché off the coast of Beirut, Lebanon
A view of Haifa, Israel
Old city of Ibiza Town, Spain
Les Aiguades near Béjaïa, Algeria
El Jebha, a port town in Morocco
Europa Point, Gibraltar
Panoramic view of La Condamine, Monaco
Sunset at the Deir al-Balah beach, Gaza Strip

Its west–east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southeastern coast of Turkey, is about 4000 km. The north–south length varies greatly between different shorelines and whether only straight routes are considered.

The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco; Malta and Cyprus are island countries in the sea.

Ottoman power based in Anatolia continued to grow, and in 1453 extinguished the Byzantine Empire with the Conquest of Constantinople.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"

Turkish language

1 links

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"
The 15th century Book of Dede Korkut
An advertisement by the IKEA branch in Berlin written in the German and Turkish languages.
Map of the main subgroups of Turkish dialects across Southeast Europe and the Middle East.
Vowels of Turkish. From
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Istanbul Marathon in 2006)
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
A Turkish computer keyboard with Q (QWERTY) layout.

It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded.

In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Iraq, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), the Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.

Portrait by Henri-Guillaume Schlesinger, 1839

Mahmud II

0 links

Mahmud II (, II.

Mahmud II (, II.

Portrait by Henri-Guillaume Schlesinger, 1839
Abdullah bin Saud.
The stylized signature of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in Islamic calligraphy. It reads "Mahmud Khan son of Abdulhamid is forever victorious".
Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt attacks Missolonghi
The mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II during the period of 1860-1890.
Poem in praise of the prophet Muhammad, calligraphed and signed by Mahmud II
Mahmudiye (1829), built by the Imperial Arsenal on the Golden Horn in Constantinople, was for many years the largest warship in the world. The 201 x 56 kadem, or 76.15 x ship of the line was armed with 128 cannons on 3 decks and carried 1,280 sailors on board. She participated in numerous important naval battles, including the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–1855) during the Crimean War.
Internal view of the mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II.
The mausoleum (türbe) of Sultan Mahmud II, located at Divan Yolu street in Çemberlitaş, Eminönü, Istanbul.
The sarcophagus of Sultan Mahmud II in his burial place.
Exterior view of the türbe of Sultan Mahmud II.
Battle of Akhalzic (1828), by January Suchodolski. Oil on canvas, 1839.
Russian forces reach and cause the Siege of Kars (1828), by January Suchodolski.

Mahmud; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.

Mahmud II steadily persevered in this great measure and ultimately the island of Cyprus became the only part of the empire in which power that was not emanating from the Sultan was allowed to be retained by Dere Beys.