A report on CyprusTurkey and Turkish Cypriots

An early sixteenth century (ca.1521–25) map of Cyprus by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis
A miniature painting depicting the landing of Ottoman soldiers at Limassol Castle during the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus (1570–71)
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
The Ottoman Turks built Büyük Han in 1572. Today it has become a thriving center of Turkish Cypriot culture.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The Bekir Pasha Aqueduct was built by the Ottoman governor Ebubekir Pasha in 1747. It is considered to be the most prominent water supply ever built in Cyprus.
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
A Cypriot woman in traditional Turkish fashion, 1878
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Mehmet Remzi Okan with his wife and children in 1919 during the Turkish War of Independence. The family were Turkish Cypriots who owned the newspaper Söz Gazetesi.
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
An old Turkish Cypriot "mahalle" (quarter) in Paphos (1969)
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
The northern areas of the island of Cyprus administered by Turkish Cypriots
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
The Hala Sultan Tekke was built by the Ottomans in the 18th century.
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
A Turkish Cypriot family who migrated to Turkey in 1935
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
There is a strong Turkish Cypriot community in London.
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
Kamran Aziz, first female Turkish Cypriot composer and pharmacist.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
Mehmet Aziz, {{postnominals|country=GBR|CBE|size=100%}}, Chief Health Inspector in British Cyprus who eradicated malaria in Cyprus
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
Rauf Denktaş, first President of Northern Cyprus (1983-2005).
A map showing the division of Cyprus
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
İsmet Güney, artist and creator of the Flag of the Republic of Cyprus
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Suat Günsel, billionaire; founder of the Near East University
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Dr.Fazıl Küçük, first Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus (1959-73)
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
Niyazi Kızılyürek, political scientist and first Turkish Cypriot elected as an MEP (2019-present)
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Kaytazzade Mehmet Nazım, poet
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Topographic map of Turkey
Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1854; 1859; and 1860–61)
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
Kâmil Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1885-1891; 1895; 1908–09; and 1912–13)
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Ziynet Sali, singer
Dhekelia Power Station
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Sibel Siber, first female Prime Minister of Northern Cyprus (2013)
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
Aziz Behich, Australian-born football player
Supreme Court of Justice
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Hussein Bicar, Egyptian-born artist<ref>{{citation|year=2017|title=من هو حسين بيكار الذي يحتفل غوغل بميلاده اليوم؟|url=https://www.alarabiya.net/ar/last-page/2017/01/02/من-هو-حسين-بيكار-الذي-يحتفل-غوغل-بميلاده-اليوم؟.html|publisher=Al Arabiya|access-date=6 September 2017|quote=ولد حسين أمين بيكار في 2 كانون الثاني /يناير من عام 1913، وتوفي في 16 نوفمبر 2002، وهو فنان تشكيلي مصري من أصل قبرصي تركي.}}</ref>
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Hussein Chalayan, {{post-nominals|size=100%|MBE}}, Turkish Cypriot-born British fashion designer
Central Bank of Cyprus
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
Tracey Emin, CBE, RA, British-born artist
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Halil Güven, Turkish Cypriot-born American Dean of San Diego State University - Georgia
Limassol General Hospital
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Meral Hussein-Ece, {{postnominals|country=GBR|OBE|size=100%}}, British-born member of the House of Lords
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
Hal Ozsan, Turkish Cypriot-born British and American actor
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Anna Silk, Canadian-born actress
2010 population by age and gender
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
Natalie Suleyman, RP, Australian-born politician
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Zein Al-Sharaf Talal, Egyptian-born Queen of Jordan (1951-52)<ref>{{citation|year=2015|title=Jordan remembers Queen Zein|url=http://jordantimes.com/news/local/jordan-remembers-queen-zein-2|quote=Queen Zein was born on August 2, 1916, the daughter of Sharif Jamil Bin Nasser, governor of Huran and nephew of Sharif Hussein Bin Ali of Mecca, and Wijdan Hanim, daughter of Shakir Pasha, governor of Cyprus.|publisher=Jordan Times|access-date=6 September 2017}}</ref>
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Fatih Terim, Turkish-born former manager of the Turkey national football team and current manager of Galatasaray.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Cypriot meze
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Cypriot Halloumi
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

- Turkish Cypriots

It is the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is south of Turkey and west of Syria.

- Cyprus

Cyprus is located off the south coast.

- Turkey

This diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferred the control of the island to the British Empire, as many Turkish Cypriots emigrated primarily to Turkey and the United Kingdom for political and economic reasons.

- Turkish Cypriots

The future of the island became a matter of disagreement between the two prominent ethnic communities, Greek Cypriots, who made up 77% of the population in 1960, and Turkish Cypriots, who made up 18% of the population.

- Cyprus

The Annan Plan for reunifying the island was supported by the majority of Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the majority of Greek Cypriots, in separate referendums in 2004.

- Turkey

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Northern Cyprus

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De facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

De facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

Fazıl Küçük, former Turkish Cypriot leader and former Vice-President of Cyprus
Sarayönü Square of North Nicosia in 1969, after the division of the city
Rauf Denktaş, founder and former President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006, with the Northern Cyprus and Turkish flags.
Blank district map of Northern Cyprus
Ersin Tatar, the President of Northern Cyprus
London office of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Bedford Square.
Mustafa Akıncı with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 2 October 2015
Turkish Cypriot soldiers of the Security Forces Command perform during a Republic Day parade.
The law courts building in North Nicosia
Panoramic view of the Güzelyurt District, and Morphou Bay as seen from the Troodos mountains.
Wild Cyprus donkeys inhabit the mainly remote northeastern region of the İskele District.
Beach near Mehmetcik, İskele District
Kyrenia (Girne) is one of the main tourist resorts in Northern Cyprus. Tourism is one of the dominant sectors of the Northern Cyprus' economy.
Panoramic view of the Kyrenia Harbour, with the Venetian-era Kyrenia Castle on the far left, and the Kyrenia Mountains in the background
Casino tourism is one of the major sectors of the North Cyprus economy.
The Ercan International Airport serves as the main port of entry into Northern Cyprus.
Turkish Cypriot children in the walled part of North Nicosia
Arab Ahmet Mosque in North Nicosia
Girne American University in Kyrenia, Northern Cyprus
Ziynet Sali is a Turkish Cypriot pop singer famous in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.
Turkish Cypriot children, dressed in traditional clothing, preparing for a folk-dance show
Karagöz and Hacivat
An early Turkish Cypriot theatre group, 1880s
Nicosia Atatürk Stadium is the largest stadium in Northern Cyprus.

Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus.

This resulted in the eviction of much of the north's Greek Cypriot population, the flight of Turkish Cypriots from the south, and the partitioning of the island, leading to a unilateral declaration of independence by the north in 1983.

A Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of enosis

Enosis

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Movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece for incorporation of the regions that they inhabit into the Greek state.

Movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece for incorporation of the regions that they inhabit into the Greek state.

A Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of enosis
Map showing Greek territorial gains between 1832 and 1947
Reported declared Greeks in the 2011 Albanian Census; Greeks and other groups are thought to have been underrepresented in numbers due to boycott and irregularities.
Allied troops marching during the Occupation of Constantinople
Partition of the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Sèvres
Photo of the Great fire of Smyrna (1922)

A widely known example of enosis is the movement within Greek Cypriots for a union of Cyprus with Greece.

However, many Turkish Cypriots opposed enosis without taksim, the partitioning of the island between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

It, however, prompted Turkey into launching the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, which led to partition and the current Cyprus dispute.

Ethnic map of Cyprus in 1973. Gold denotes Greek Cypriots, purple denotes Turkish Cypriot enclaves and red denotes British bases.

Turkish invasion of Cyprus

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Launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974.

Launched on 20 July 1974, following the Cypriot coup d'état on 15 July 1974.

Ethnic map of Cyprus in 1973. Gold denotes Greek Cypriots, purple denotes Turkish Cypriot enclaves and red denotes British bases.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census
Location of Turkish forces during the late hours of 20 July 1974.
Map showing the division of Cyprus
Varosha, a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under military control
A view from the cemetery in the village of Maratha, where the victims of the massacre are being individually buried. This is the photograph of a family grave, showing the four children killed in a single family.
Greek Cypriot prisoners taken to Adana camps in Turkey
A view from the interior of Antiphonitis, where frescoes have been looted
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, an entity recognised only by Turkey
Proposed flag of the United Republic of Cyprus under the Annan Plan
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia

Over the course of the next year, roughly 60,000 Turkish Cypriots, amounting to half the Turkish Cypriot population, were displaced from the south to the north.

After the hostilities of 1974, the United States applied an arms embargo on both Turkey and Cyprus.

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus

Cyprus problem

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Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus
A Greek Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of Enosis (union) with Greece
The "Green Line" in Nicosia, Cyprus.
The north–south checkpoint has been open since 2003
Proposed flag of the United Republic of Cyprus
Former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan was the creator of the Annan plan.
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006
Opening of Ledra Street in April 2008
Greek Cypriot negotiator Andreas Mavroyiannis and the Turkish Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs Feridun Sinirlioğlu, in Ankara, within the scope of the 2014 Cyprus talks
Under the control of the Republic of Cyprus
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Turkey
Greece

The Cyprus problem, also known as the Cyprus dispute, Cyprus issue, Cyprus question or Cyprus conflict, is an ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

The international complications of the dispute stretch beyond the boundaries of the island of Cyprus itself and involve the guarantor powers under the Zürich and London Agreement (Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), the United Nations, and the European Union, along with (unofficially) the United States and formerly the interference of Czechoslovakia and the Eastern Bloc.

Although the Republic of Cyprus is recognised by the international community as the sole legitimate state, the north is under the de facto administration of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, on which the Turkish Armed Forces are stationed.

Archbishop President Makarios in New York City in 1962.

Makarios III

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Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician who served as the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first president of Cyprus (1960–1977).

Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician who served as the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first president of Cyprus (1960–1977).

Archbishop President Makarios in New York City in 1962.
President Makarios during a state visit to West Berlin in 1962
Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. greets Archbishop Makarios at City Hall
President Makarios in Bonn during a state visit to West Germany in 1962
A statue of Makarios
Makarios's tomb

Mouskos adopted the clerical name Makarios and returned to Cyprus.

In the latter years of the 1950s, the Turkish Cypriot community first began to float the idea of Taksim or partition, as a counterweight to the Greek ideal of enosis or union.

Advocates of Taksim felt that the Turkish Cypriot community would be persecuted in a Greek Cyprus, and that only by keeping part of the island under either British or Turkish sovereignty could the safety of the Turkish Cypriots be guaranteed.

1974 Cypriot coup d'état

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The 1974 coup d'état in Cyprus was a military coup d'état by the Greek Army in Cyprus, the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.

The Republic of Cyprus was established in 1960 with the London and Zurich Agreements, and the Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots were the two founding communities.

In response to the coup, on 20 July 1974 Turkey invaded the island claiming that the action was compliant with the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, taking control of the north and dividing Cyprus along what became known as the Green Line, cutting off about a third of the total territory.

Proposed flag of the United
Republic of Cyprus

Annan Plan

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United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute.

United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute.

Proposed flag of the United
Republic of Cyprus

The proposal was to restructure the Republic of Cyprus to become the "United Republic of Cyprus", a federation of two states.

It would also have established a limited right to return between the territories of the two communities, and it would have allowed both Greece and Turkey to maintain a permanent military presence on the island, albeit with large, phased reductions in troop numbers.

A collective Presidential Council, made up of six voting members, allocated according to population (per present levels, four Greek Cypriots and two Turkish Cypriots), and selected and voted in by parliament. An additional three non-voting members would be assigned 2:1.

A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.

Turkish people

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A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
West Thrace Republic, Turks in Kardzali
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara in the 1950s
Turkish people at the 2007 Republic Protests in the capital city of Ankara supporting the principle of state secularism.
Percentage of Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria by Province (2011)
Turkish Meskhetians wearing T-shirts that read: 14 November 1944, We have not forgotten the deportation.
An Iraqi Turkmen girl in traditional Turkish costume.
As of 2020, the Turks in Germany number between 4 million and 7 million (i.e. 5–9% of Germany's population). With approximately 2 million Turks in Berlin, the German capital is the largest Turkish populated city outside Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introducing the modern Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri in 1928.
The flag of the Centar Župa Municipality in North Macedonia is labelled with Macedonian and Turkish writing in its central banner.
A bilingual road sign (Turkish and Arabic) in Iraq.
The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, is an example of Ottoman imperial architecture.
The Hala Sultan Tekke in Larnaca, Cyprus, is an example of Ottoman provincial architecture. As the resting place of Umm Haram, it is one of the holiest sites in Islam and an important pilgrimage site for the largely secular Turkish Cypriot community.
The neo-Ottoman Cologne Central Mosque in Cologne is the largest mosque in Germany, and mostly serves the Turkish German community.
The neo-Ottoman Westermoskee in Amsterdam is the largest mosque in the Netherlands, and mostly serves the Turkish Dutch community.
Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.

The Turkish people, or simply the Turks (Türkler), are the world's largest Turkic ethnic group; they speak various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

Other Turkish groups include the Rumelian Turks historically in the Balkans, today mostly living in Turkey; Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus, Meskhetian Turks originally based in Meskheti, Georgia; and ethnic Turkish people across the Middle East, where they are also called "Turkmen" or "Turkoman" in the Levant (e.g., Iraqi Turkmen, Syrian Turkmen, Lebanese Turkmen, etc.).

The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"

Turkish language

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Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"
The 15th century Book of Dede Korkut
An advertisement by the IKEA branch in Berlin written in the German and Turkish languages.
Map of the main subgroups of Turkish dialects across Southeast Europe and the Middle East.
Vowels of Turkish. From
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Istanbul Marathon in 2006)
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
A Turkish computer keyboard with Q (QWERTY) layout.

It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Iraq, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), the Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.

Kıbrıs Türkçesi is the name for Cypriot Turkish and is spoken by the Turkish Cypriots.