Ethnic map of Cyprus in 1973. Gold denotes Greek Cypriots, purple denotes Turkish Cypriot enclaves and red denotes British bases.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
Location of Turkish forces during the late hours of 20 July 1974.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
Map showing the division of Cyprus
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
Varosha, a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under military control
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
A view from the cemetery in the village of Maratha, where the victims of the massacre are being individually buried. This is the photograph of a family grave, showing the four children killed in a single family.
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Greek Cypriot prisoners taken to Adana camps in Turkey
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
A view from the interior of Antiphonitis, where frescoes have been looted
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, an entity recognised only by Turkey
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
Proposed flag of the United Republic of Cyprus under the Annan Plan
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
A map showing the division of Cyprus
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Topographic map of Turkey
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Dhekelia Power Station
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
Supreme Court of Justice
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
Central Bank of Cyprus
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Limassol General Hospital
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
2010 population by age and gender
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Cypriot meze
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Cypriot Halloumi
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

It is the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is south of Turkey and west of Syria.

- Cyprus

Cyprus is located off the south coast.

- Turkey

This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus and the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.

- Cyprus

Following a decade of Cypriot intercommunal violence and the coup in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 staged by the EOKA B paramilitary organisation, which overthrew President Makarios and installed the pro-Enosis (union with Greece) Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July 1974 by unilaterally exercising Article IV in the Treaty of Guarantee (1960), but without restoring the status quo ante at the end of the military operation.

- Turkey

After the hostilities of 1974, the United States applied an arms embargo on both Turkey and Cyprus.

- Turkish invasion of Cyprus

8 related topics with Alpha

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Northern Cyprus

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De facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

De facto state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.

Fazıl Küçük, former Turkish Cypriot leader and former Vice-President of Cyprus
Sarayönü Square of North Nicosia in 1969, after the division of the city
Rauf Denktaş, founder and former President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006, with the Northern Cyprus and Turkish flags.
Blank district map of Northern Cyprus
Ersin Tatar, the President of Northern Cyprus
London office of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Bedford Square.
Mustafa Akıncı with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, 2 October 2015
Turkish Cypriot soldiers of the Security Forces Command perform during a Republic Day parade.
The law courts building in North Nicosia
Panoramic view of the Güzelyurt District, and Morphou Bay as seen from the Troodos mountains.
Wild Cyprus donkeys inhabit the mainly remote northeastern region of the İskele District.
Beach near Mehmetcik, İskele District
Kyrenia (Girne) is one of the main tourist resorts in Northern Cyprus. Tourism is one of the dominant sectors of the Northern Cyprus' economy.
Panoramic view of the Kyrenia Harbour, with the Venetian-era Kyrenia Castle on the far left, and the Kyrenia Mountains in the background
Casino tourism is one of the major sectors of the North Cyprus economy.
The Ercan International Airport serves as the main port of entry into Northern Cyprus.
Turkish Cypriot children in the walled part of North Nicosia
Arab Ahmet Mosque in North Nicosia
Girne American University in Kyrenia, Northern Cyprus
Ziynet Sali is a Turkish Cypriot pop singer famous in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.
Turkish Cypriot children, dressed in traditional clothing, preparing for a folk-dance show
Karagöz and Hacivat
An early Turkish Cypriot theatre group, 1880s
Nicosia Atatürk Stadium is the largest stadium in Northern Cyprus.

Recognised only by Turkey, Northern Cyprus is considered by the international community to be part of the Republic of Cyprus.

A coup d'état in 1974, performed as part of an attempt to annex the island to Greece, prompted the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.

An early sixteenth century (ca.1521–25) map of Cyprus by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis

Turkish Cypriots

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An early sixteenth century (ca.1521–25) map of Cyprus by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis
A miniature painting depicting the landing of Ottoman soldiers at Limassol Castle during the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus (1570–71)
The Ottoman Turks built Büyük Han in 1572. Today it has become a thriving center of Turkish Cypriot culture.
The Bekir Pasha Aqueduct was built by the Ottoman governor Ebubekir Pasha in 1747. It is considered to be the most prominent water supply ever built in Cyprus.
A Cypriot woman in traditional Turkish fashion, 1878
Mehmet Remzi Okan with his wife and children in 1919 during the Turkish War of Independence. The family were Turkish Cypriots who owned the newspaper Söz Gazetesi.
An old Turkish Cypriot "mahalle" (quarter) in Paphos (1969)
The northern areas of the island of Cyprus administered by Turkish Cypriots
The Hala Sultan Tekke was built by the Ottomans in the 18th century.
A Turkish Cypriot family who migrated to Turkey in 1935
There is a strong Turkish Cypriot community in London.
Kamran Aziz, first female Turkish Cypriot composer and pharmacist.
Mehmet Aziz, {{postnominals|country=GBR|CBE|size=100%}}, Chief Health Inspector in British Cyprus who eradicated malaria in Cyprus
Rauf Denktaş, first President of Northern Cyprus (1983-2005).
İsmet Güney, artist and creator of the Flag of the Republic of Cyprus
Suat Günsel, billionaire; founder of the Near East University
Dr.Fazıl Küçük, first Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus (1959-73)
Niyazi Kızılyürek, political scientist and first Turkish Cypriot elected as an MEP (2019-present)
Kaytazzade Mehmet Nazım, poet
Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1854; 1859; and 1860–61)
Kâmil Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1885-1891; 1895; 1908–09; and 1912–13)
Ziynet Sali, singer
Sibel Siber, first female Prime Minister of Northern Cyprus (2013)
Aziz Behich, Australian-born football player
Hussein Bicar, Egyptian-born artist<ref>{{citation|year=2017|title=من هو حسين بيكار الذي يحتفل غوغل بميلاده اليوم؟|url=https://www.alarabiya.net/ar/last-page/2017/01/02/من-هو-حسين-بيكار-الذي-يحتفل-غوغل-بميلاده-اليوم؟.html|publisher=Al Arabiya|access-date=6 September 2017|quote=ولد حسين أمين بيكار في 2 كانون الثاني /يناير من عام 1913، وتوفي في 16 نوفمبر 2002، وهو فنان تشكيلي مصري من أصل قبرصي تركي.}}</ref>
Hussein Chalayan, {{post-nominals|size=100%|MBE}}, Turkish Cypriot-born British fashion designer
Tracey Emin, CBE, RA, British-born artist
Halil Güven, Turkish Cypriot-born American Dean of San Diego State University - Georgia
Meral Hussein-Ece, {{postnominals|country=GBR|OBE|size=100%}}, British-born member of the House of Lords
Hal Ozsan, Turkish Cypriot-born British and American actor
Anna Silk, Canadian-born actress
Natalie Suleyman, RP, Australian-born politician
Zein Al-Sharaf Talal, Egyptian-born Queen of Jordan (1951-52)<ref>{{citation|year=2015|title=Jordan remembers Queen Zein|url=http://jordantimes.com/news/local/jordan-remembers-queen-zein-2|quote=Queen Zein was born on August 2, 1916, the daughter of Sharif Jamil Bin Nasser, governor of Huran and nephew of Sharif Hussein Bin Ali of Mecca, and Wijdan Hanim, daughter of Shakir Pasha, governor of Cyprus.|publisher=Jordan Times|access-date=6 September 2017}}</ref>
Fatih Terim, Turkish-born former manager of the Turkey national football team and current manager of Galatasaray.

Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

This diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferred the control of the island to the British Empire, as many Turkish Cypriots emigrated primarily to Turkey and the United Kingdom for political and economic reasons.

This action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed.

A Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of enosis

Enosis

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Movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece for incorporation of the regions that they inhabit into the Greek state.

Movement of various Greek communities that live outside Greece for incorporation of the regions that they inhabit into the Greek state.

A Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of enosis
Map showing Greek territorial gains between 1832 and 1947
Reported declared Greeks in the 2011 Albanian Census; Greeks and other groups are thought to have been underrepresented in numbers due to boycott and irregularities.
Allied troops marching during the Occupation of Constantinople
Partition of the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Sèvres
Photo of the Great fire of Smyrna (1922)

A widely known example of enosis is the movement within Greek Cypriots for a union of Cyprus with Greece.

It, however, prompted Turkey into launching the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, which led to partition and the current Cyprus dispute.

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus

Cyprus problem

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Ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

Ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots.

Ottoman admiral, geographer and cartographer Piri Reis' historical map of Cyprus
A Greek Cypriot demonstration in the 1930s in favour of Enosis (union) with Greece
The "Green Line" in Nicosia, Cyprus.
The north–south checkpoint has been open since 2003
Proposed flag of the United Republic of Cyprus
Former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan was the creator of the Annan plan.
Atatürk Square, North Nicosia in 2006
Opening of Ledra Street in April 2008
Greek Cypriot negotiator Andreas Mavroyiannis and the Turkish Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs Feridun Sinirlioğlu, in Ankara, within the scope of the 2014 Cyprus talks
Under the control of the Republic of Cyprus
The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Turkey
Greece

The international complications of the dispute stretch beyond the boundaries of the island of Cyprus itself and involve the guarantor powers under the Zürich and London Agreement (Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), the United Nations, and the European Union, along with (unofficially) the United States and formerly the interference of Czechoslovakia and the Eastern Bloc.

It entered its current phase in the aftermath of the 1974 Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of Cyprus.

Although the Republic of Cyprus is recognised by the international community as the sole legitimate state, the north is under the de facto administration of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, on which the Turkish Armed Forces are stationed.

1974 Cypriot coup d'état

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The 1974 coup d'état in Cyprus was a military coup d'état by the Greek Army in Cyprus, the Cypriot National Guard and the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.

In response to the coup, on 20 July 1974 Turkey invaded the island claiming that the action was compliant with the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, taking control of the north and dividing Cyprus along what became known as the Green Line, cutting off about a third of the total territory.

Archbishop President Makarios in New York City in 1962.

Makarios III

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Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician who served as the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first president of Cyprus (1960–1977).

Greek Cypriot clergyman and politician who served as the archbishop and primate of the autocephalous Church of Cyprus (1950–1977) and as the first president of Cyprus (1960–1977).

Archbishop President Makarios in New York City in 1962.
President Makarios during a state visit to West Berlin in 1962
Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. greets Archbishop Makarios at City Hall
President Makarios in Bonn during a state visit to West Germany in 1962
A statue of Makarios
Makarios's tomb

Mouskos adopted the clerical name Makarios and returned to Cyprus.

Advocates of Taksim felt that the Turkish Cypriot community would be persecuted in a Greek Cyprus, and that only by keeping part of the island under either British or Turkish sovereignty could the safety of the Turkish Cypriots be guaranteed.

Five hours after Makarios' address to the Security Council, the Turkish invasion of Cyprus began, taking Ioannidis by surprise.

Proposed flag of the United
Republic of Cyprus

Annan Plan

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United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute.

United Nations proposal to resolve the Cyprus dispute.

Proposed flag of the United
Republic of Cyprus

The proposal was to restructure the Republic of Cyprus to become the "United Republic of Cyprus", a federation of two states.

It would also have established a limited right to return between the territories of the two communities, and it would have allowed both Greece and Turkey to maintain a permanent military presence on the island, albeit with large, phased reductions in troop numbers.

The plan absolved Turkey of all responsibility for its invasion of Cyprus and its murders, rapes, destruction of property and churches, looting and forcing approximately 200,000 Greek Cypriots from their homes and property. The Cyprus government filed applications to the European Commission on Human rights on 17 September 1974 and on 21 March 1975. The Commission issued its report on the charges made in the two applications on 10 July 1976. In it the Commission found Turkey guilty of violating the following articles of the European Convention on Human Rights:

Treaty of Guarantee (1960)

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The Treaty of Guarantee is a treaty between Cyprus, Greece, Turkey, and the United Kingdom that was promulgated in 1960.

Article IV reserves the right of the guarantor powers to take action to re-establish the current state of affairs in Cyprus, a provision that was used as justification for the Turkish invasion of 1974.