A report on TurkeyTurkish people and Cyprus

A map of the independent beyliks in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.
West Thrace Republic, Turks in Kardzali
A copper mine in Cyprus. In antiquity, Cyprus was a major source of copper.
The Great Seljuk Empire in 1092, upon the death of Malik Shah I
The loss of almost all Ottoman territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea, the Aegean islands, the island of Cyprus, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, the Middle East, and the Soviet Union to migrate to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace.
The Second Ottoman Siege of Vienna in 1683 (the First Siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and a Holy League of European states.
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara in the 1950s
Archeologic site of Khirokitia with early remains of human habitation during Aceramic Neolithic period (reconstruction)
Armenian civilians being deported during the Armenian genocide
Turkish people at the 2007 Republic Protests in the capital city of Ankara supporting the principle of state secularism.
Zeus Keraunios, 500–480 BC, Nicosia museum
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, 13 August 1930.
Percentage of Ethnic Turks in Bulgaria by Province (2011)
The Walls of Nicosia were built by the Venetians to defend the city in case of an Ottoman attack
Eighteen female deputies joined the Turkish Parliament with the 1935 general elections. Turkish women gained the right to vote and to hold elected office as a mark of the far-reaching social changes initiated by Atatürk.
Turkish Meskhetians wearing T-shirts that read: 14 November 1944, We have not forgotten the deportation.
Kyrenia Castle was originally built by the Byzantines and enlarged by the Venetians
Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference, 1943.
An Iraqi Turkmen girl in traditional Turkish costume.
Büyük Han, a caravanserai in Nicosia, is an example of the surviving Ottoman architecture in Cyprus.
Anıtkabir, the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara, is visited by large crowds every year during national holidays, such as Republic Day on 29 October.
As of 2020, the Turks in Germany number between 4 million and 7 million (i.e. 5–9% of Germany's population). With approximately 2 million Turks in Berlin, the German capital is the largest Turkish populated city outside Turkey
Hoisting the British flag at Nicosia
Istanbul Çağlayan Justice Palace is a courthouse in the Şişli district of Istanbul.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk introducing the modern Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri in 1928.
Greek Cypriot demonstrations for Enosis (union with Greece) in 1930
After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started full membership negotiations with the European Union in 2005.
A British soldier facing a crowd of Greek Cypriot demonstrators in Nicosia (1956)
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the US Armed Forces. Turkey joined the alliance in 1952.
The flag of the Centar Župa Municipality in North Macedonia is labelled with Macedonian and Turkish writing in its central banner.
Ethnic map of Cyprus according to the 1960 census.
The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20 (1999).
A bilingual road sign (Turkish and Arabic) in Iraq.
Varosha (Maraş), a suburb of Famagusta, was abandoned when its inhabitants fled in 1974 and remains under Turkish military control
TAI Anka and Bayraktar TB2 are the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) used by the Turkish Armed Forces.
The Blue Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey, is an example of Ottoman imperial architecture.
A map showing the division of Cyprus
TCG Anadolu (L-400) is an amphibious assault ship-aircraft carrier developed for the Turkish Navy
The Hala Sultan Tekke in Larnaca, Cyprus, is an example of Ottoman provincial architecture. As the resting place of Umm Haram, it is one of the holiest sites in Islam and an important pilgrimage site for the largely secular Turkish Cypriot community.
Foreign Ministers of the European Union countries in Limassol during Cyprus Presidency of the EU in 2012
Feminist demonstration in Kadıköy, Istanbul on 29 July 2017
The neo-Ottoman Cologne Central Mosque in Cologne is the largest mosque in Germany, and mostly serves the Turkish German community.
Cyprus taken from space by the International Space Station in 2021
Turkish journalists protesting the imprisonment of their colleagues on Human Rights Day in 2016.
The neo-Ottoman Westermoskee in Amsterdam is the largest mosque in the Netherlands, and mostly serves the Turkish Dutch community.
Sea caves at Cape Greco.
Istanbul Pride organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul were denied permission by the government. The denials were based on security concerns, but critics claimed the bans were ideological. Despite the refusal hundreds of people defied the ban each year.
Safranbolu was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1994 due to its well-preserved Ottoman era houses and architecture.
The Troodos Mountains experience heavy snowfall in winter
Topographic map of Turkey
Kouris Dam overflow in April 2012
Sumela Monastery in the Pontic Mountains, which form an ecoregion with diverse temperate rainforest types, flora and fauna in northern Anatolia.
Presidential Palace, Nicosia
A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras.
Nicos Anastasiades, President of Cyprus since 2013.
Köppen climate classification of Turkey
Dhekelia Power Station
Istanbul is the largest city and financial centre of Turkey.
Welcoming ceremony of the former Russian president Dmitry Medvedev by the soldiers of the Cypriot National Guard.
A proportional representation of Turkey's exports, 2019
Supreme Court of Justice
Marmaris in the Turkish Riviera
A proportional representation of Cyprus's exports, 2019
Istanbul Airport main terminal building has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and making it the world's largest airport terminal building under a single roof.
Central Bank of Cyprus
A TCDD HT80000 high-speed train of the Turkish State Railways
Cyprus is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.
Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.
Limassol General Hospital
Total fertility rate in Turkey by province (2021)
A1 Motorway between Agios Athanasios junction and Mesa Ghetonia junction in Limassol
CIA map of areas with a Kurdish majority
Population growth, 1961–2003 (numbers for the entire island, excluding Turkish settlers residing in Northern Cyprus).
Sancaklar Mosque is a contemporary mosque in Istanbul
2010 population by age and gender
The Church of St. Anthony of Padua on İstiklal Avenue, in the Beyoğlu district of Istanbul. There are 234 active churches in the city.
The Armenian Alphabet at the Melkonian Educational Institute. Armenian is recognised as a minority language in Cyprus.
Istanbul Technical University is the world's third-oldest technical university.
Faneromeni School is the oldest all-girl primary school in Cyprus.
Istanbul University was founded in 1453 as a Darülfünûn. On 1 August 1933 it was reorganised and became the Republic's first university.
The entrance of the historic Pancyprian Gymnasium
Acıbadem Hospital in Altunizade neighborhood of Üsküdar, İstanbul
Typical Cypriot architecture in old part of Nicosia, Cyprus
Ortaköy Mosque is a good example of the Westernisation of Islamic-Ottoman architecture. Many Baroque architecture elements can be seen in it.
Laouto, dominant instrument of the Cypriot traditional music.
Ottoman miniature which can be linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences.
Zeno of Citium, founder of the Stoic school of philosophy.
Namık Kemal's works had a profound influence on Atatürk and other Turkish statesmen who established the Turkish Republic.
Ioannis Kigalas (c. 1622–1687) was a Nicosia born Greek Cypriot scholar and professor of Philosophy who was largely active in the 17th century.
Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
Cypriot meze
Süreyya Opera House is situated in the Asian side of Istanbul and Atatürk Cultural Center is the main Opera House in the European side of the city.
Cypriot Halloumi
Referred to as Süperstar by the Turkish media, Ajda Pekkan is a prominent figure of Turkish pop music, with a career spanning decades and a repertoire of diverse musical styles.
Cypriot style café in an arcade in Nicosia
Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.
Spyros Kyprianou Athletic Centre in Limassol
Turkey won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship.
Cypri insvla nova descript 1573, Ioannes á Deutecum f[ecit]. Map of Cyprus newly drawn by Johannes van Deutecom, 1573.
VakıfBank S.K. has won the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship in 2017 and 2018, and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history.
TRT World is the international news platform of the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation.
The closing ceremony of the annual International Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival takes place at the Aspendos amphitheatre.

The Turkish people, or simply the Turks (Türkler), are the world's largest Turkic ethnic group; they speak various dialects of the Turkish language and form a majority in Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

- Turkish people

Cyprus is located off the south coast.

- Turkey

It is the third-largest and third-most populous island in the Mediterranean, and is south of Turkey and west of Syria.

- Cyprus

Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority.

- Turkey

The island of Cyprus was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean.

- Turkish people

24 seats are allocated to the Turkish community but remain vacant since 1964.

- Cyprus

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Ottoman Empire

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Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, depicted in an Ottoman miniature from 1523
The Ottoman Empire in 1683
Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror's entry into Constantinople; painting by Fausto Zonaro (1854–1929)
An Ottoman miniature of the Battle of Mohács in 1526
Map of Ottoman territorial acquisitions up to 1683
The Second Siege of Vienna in 1683, by Frans Geffels (1624–1694).
Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy captured Belgrade in 1717. Austrian control in Serbia lasted until the Turkish victory in the Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739). With the 1739 Treaty of Belgrade, the Ottoman Empire regained northern Bosnia, Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar.
Ottoman troops attempting to halt the advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace. Painting by Konstantin Kapıdağlı.
The siege of the Acropolis in 1826–1827 during the Greek War of Independence
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908.
Ottoman troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856
The Empire in 1875 under sultan Abdul-Aziz
Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908
Admiral Wilhelm Souchon, who commanded the Black Sea Raid on 29 October 1914, and his officers in Ottoman naval uniforms
The Armenian genocide was the result of the Ottoman government's deportation and ethnic cleansing policies regarding its Armenian citizens after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915) and the collapse of the Caucasus Front against the Imperial Russian Army and Armenian volunteer units during World War I. An estimated 600,000 to more than 1 million, or up to 1.5 million people were killed.
Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate, 17 November 1922
Ambassadors at the Topkapı Palace
Inside Harem, the private residence of the sultan in Topkapı Palace
Yusuf Ziya Pasha, Ottoman ambassador to the United States, in Washington, 1913
An Ottoman trial, 1877
An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence as depicted in an Ottoman miniature.
Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt)
Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order) troops, in 1793
A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I. At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V.
Ottoman pilots in early 1912
Administrative divisions in 1899 (year 1317 Hijri)
A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, 1481
The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Constantinople. On 26 August 1896, the bank was occupied by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
View of Galata (Karaköy) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn, c. 1880–1893
1911 Ottoman calendar shown in several different languages such as: Ottoman Turkish, Greek, Armenian, Hebrew, Bulgarian and French.
Abdülmecid II was the last caliph of Islam and a member of the Ottoman dynasty.
Mehmed the Conqueror and Patriarch Gennadius II
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.
Depiction of a hookah shop in Lebanon, Ottoman Empire
Beyazıt State Library was founded in 1884.
Ahmet Nedîm Efendi, one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, designed by Sinan in the 16th century and a major example of the Classical Ottoman style
Ottoman miniature lost its function with the Westernization of Ottoman culture.
Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Girl Reciting the Qurān (Kuran Okuyan Kız), an 1880 painting by the Ottoman polymath Osman Hamdi Bey, whose works often showed women engaged in educational activities.
Members of Beşiktaş J.K. in 1903
Members of Galatasaray S.K. (football) in 1905
Miniature from Surname-i Vehbi showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries
The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720.
A Musical Gathering - 18th century
Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun
Dome of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne.
The original Church of St. Anthony of Padua, Istanbul was built in 1725 by the local Italian community of Istanbul.

The successful Turkish War of Independence, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against the occupying Allies, led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.

British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli advocated for restoring the Ottoman territories on the Balkan Peninsula during the Congress of Berlin, and in return, Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus in 1878.

Several historians such as British historian Edward Gibbon and the Greek historian Dimitri Kitsikis have argued that after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman state took over the machinery of the Byzantine (Roman) state and that in essence, the Ottoman Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire under a Turkish Muslim guise.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"

Turkish language

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Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

Most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 80 to 90 million speakers.

The 10th-century Irk Bitig or "Book of Divination"
The 15th century Book of Dede Korkut
An advertisement by the IKEA branch in Berlin written in the German and Turkish languages.
Map of the main subgroups of Turkish dialects across Southeast Europe and the Middle East.
Vowels of Turkish. From
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. (Photo taken during the 28th Istanbul Marathon in 2006)
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Kayseri. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
A Turkish computer keyboard with Q (QWERTY) layout.

It is the national language of Turkey and Northern Cyprus.

Turkish is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey and by the Turkish diaspora in some 30 other countries.

In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Iraq, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), the Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.

Syria

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Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant.

Female figurine, 5000 BC. Ancient Orient Museum.
Ishqi-Mari, king of the Second Kingdom of Mari, circa 2300 BC.
Amrit Phoenician Temple
Ancient city of Palmyra before the war
Roman Theatre at Bosra in the province of Arabia, present-day Syria
Temple of Jupiter, Damascus
The ancient city of Apamea, an important commercial center and one of Syria's most prosperous cities in classical antiquity
Umayyad fresco from Qasr al-Hayr al-Gharbî, built in the early 7th century
The 1299 Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar. The Mongols under Ghazan defeated the Mamluks.
Syrian women, 1683
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing Ottoman Syria labelled as "Al Sham" in yellow
Armenian deportees near Aleppo during the Armenian genocide, 1915
The inauguration of President Hashim al-Atassi in 1936
Syrian rebels in Ghouta during the Great Syrian Revolt against French colonial rule in the 1920s
Aleppo in 1961
Quneitra village, largely destroyed before the Israeli withdrawal in June 1974.
Military situation in the Lebanese Civil War, 1983: Green – controlled by Syria
A Syrian Army soldier manning a checkpoint outside of Damascus shortly after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, 2012
Diplomatic missions of Syria
Map of world and Syria (red) with military involvement.
The Syrian Golan Heights occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War
Wounded civilians arrive at a hospital in Aleppo, October 2012
Historical development of real GDP per capita in Syria, since 1820
Aleppo soap
Al-Hamidiyah Souq in Damascus in 2010
A cove in Latakia in 2014
Oil refinery in Homs
Expressway M5 near Al-Rastan
Damascus, traditional clothing
The ethno-religious composition of Syria
Great Mosque of Aleppo, Aleppo
Our Lady of Saidnaya Monastery in Saidnaya, Rif Dimashq
Damascus University headquarters in Baramkeh
UIS adult literacy rate of Syria
Dabke combines circle dance and line dancing and is widely performed at weddings and other joyous occasions.
Adunis
Aleppo International Stadium
Fattoush, a Syrian bread salad

It is a unitary republic that consists of 14 governorates (subdivisions), and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east and southeast, Jordan to the south, and Israel and Lebanon to the southwest.

Cyprus lies to the west across the Mediterranean Sea.

In order to facilitate this, a faulty election was done in which ethnic Turks who were originally from the Sanjak but lived in Adana and other areas near the border in Turkey came to vote in the elections, shifting the election in favor of secession.

French medal commemorating the Franco-Turkish War in Cilicia, circa 1920

Levant

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Approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia.

Approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia.

French medal commemorating the Franco-Turkish War in Cilicia, circa 1920
1909 postcard depicting Ottoman Constantinople and bearing a French stamp inscribed "Levant"
Satellite view of the Levant including Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Jordan and the Northern Sinai
Prince from Lebanon and Muslim from Damascus, late 19th century
Map representing the distribution of the Arabic dialects in the area of the Levant

In its narrowest sense, which is in use today in archaeology and other cultural contexts, it is equivalent to a stretch of land bordering the Mediterranean in southwestern Asia, i.e. the historical region of Syria ("greater Syria"), which includes present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Palestine and most of Turkey southwest of the middle Euphrates.

The term is also used for modern events, peoples, states or parts of states in the same region, namely Cyprus, Egypt, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, and Turkey are sometimes considered Levant countries (compare with Near East, Middle East, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Asia).

There are also Circassians, Turks, Samaritans, and Nawars.

An early sixteenth century (ca.1521–25) map of Cyprus by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis

Turkish Cypriots

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An early sixteenth century (ca.1521–25) map of Cyprus by the Ottoman cartographer Piri Reis
A miniature painting depicting the landing of Ottoman soldiers at Limassol Castle during the Ottoman conquest of Cyprus (1570–71)
The Ottoman Turks built Büyük Han in 1572. Today it has become a thriving center of Turkish Cypriot culture.
The Bekir Pasha Aqueduct was built by the Ottoman governor Ebubekir Pasha in 1747. It is considered to be the most prominent water supply ever built in Cyprus.
A Cypriot woman in traditional Turkish fashion, 1878
Mehmet Remzi Okan with his wife and children in 1919 during the Turkish War of Independence. The family were Turkish Cypriots who owned the newspaper Söz Gazetesi.
An old Turkish Cypriot "mahalle" (quarter) in Paphos (1969)
The northern areas of the island of Cyprus administered by Turkish Cypriots
The Hala Sultan Tekke was built by the Ottomans in the 18th century.
A Turkish Cypriot family who migrated to Turkey in 1935
There is a strong Turkish Cypriot community in London.
Kamran Aziz, first female Turkish Cypriot composer and pharmacist.
Mehmet Aziz, {{postnominals|country=GBR|CBE|size=100%}}, Chief Health Inspector in British Cyprus who eradicated malaria in Cyprus
Rauf Denktaş, first President of Northern Cyprus (1983-2005).
İsmet Güney, artist and creator of the Flag of the Republic of Cyprus
Suat Günsel, billionaire; founder of the Near East University
Dr.Fazıl Küçük, first Vice President of the Republic of Cyprus (1959-73)
Niyazi Kızılyürek, political scientist and first Turkish Cypriot elected as an MEP (2019-present)
Kaytazzade Mehmet Nazım, poet
Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1854; 1859; and 1860–61)
Kâmil Pasha, Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (1885-1891; 1895; 1908–09; and 1912–13)
Ziynet Sali, singer
Sibel Siber, first female Prime Minister of Northern Cyprus (2013)
Aziz Behich, Australian-born football player
Hussein Bicar, Egyptian-born artist<ref>{{citation|year=2017|title=من هو حسين بيكار الذي يحتفل غوغل بميلاده اليوم؟|url=https://www.alarabiya.net/ar/last-page/2017/01/02/من-هو-حسين-بيكار-الذي-يحتفل-غوغل-بميلاده-اليوم؟.html|publisher=Al Arabiya|access-date=6 September 2017|quote=ولد حسين أمين بيكار في 2 كانون الثاني /يناير من عام 1913، وتوفي في 16 نوفمبر 2002، وهو فنان تشكيلي مصري من أصل قبرصي تركي.}}</ref>
Hussein Chalayan, {{post-nominals|size=100%|MBE}}, Turkish Cypriot-born British fashion designer
Tracey Emin, CBE, RA, British-born artist
Halil Güven, Turkish Cypriot-born American Dean of San Diego State University - Georgia
Meral Hussein-Ece, {{postnominals|country=GBR|OBE|size=100%}}, British-born member of the House of Lords
Hal Ozsan, Turkish Cypriot-born British and American actor
Anna Silk, Canadian-born actress
Natalie Suleyman, RP, Australian-born politician
Zein Al-Sharaf Talal, Egyptian-born Queen of Jordan (1951-52)<ref>{{citation|year=2015|title=Jordan remembers Queen Zein|url=http://jordantimes.com/news/local/jordan-remembers-queen-zein-2|quote=Queen Zein was born on August 2, 1916, the daughter of Sharif Jamil Bin Nasser, governor of Huran and nephew of Sharif Hussein Bin Ali of Mecca, and Wijdan Hanim, daughter of Shakir Pasha, governor of Cyprus.|publisher=Jordan Times|access-date=6 September 2017}}</ref>
Fatih Terim, Turkish-born former manager of the Turkey national football team and current manager of Galatasaray.

Turkish Cypriots or Cypriot Turks (Kıbrıs Türkleri or Kıbrıslı Türkler; Τουρκοκύπριοι) are mostly ethnic Turks originating from Cyprus.

This diaspora came into existence after the Ottoman Empire transferred the control of the island to the British Empire, as many Turkish Cypriots emigrated primarily to Turkey and the United Kingdom for political and economic reasons.

Greece

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Country in Southeast Europe.

Country in Southeast Europe.

The entrance of the Treasury of Atreus (13th BC) in Mycenae
Herodotus (c. 484 BC—c. 425 BC), often considered the "father of history"
Fresco displaying the Minoan ritual of "bull leaping", found in Knossos
Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic period (750–550 BC)
The Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens, icon of classical Greece.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Map of Alexander's short-lived empire (334–323 BC). After his death the lands were divided between the Diadochi
The Antikythera mechanism (c. 100 BC) is considered to be the first known mechanical analog computer (National Archaeological Museum, Athens).
A view from the ancient royal Macedonian tombs in Vergina
The Odeon of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built in 161 AD
Dome of Hagia Sophia, Thessaloniki (8th century), one of the 15 UNESCO's Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of the city
The Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes, originally built in the late 7th century as a Byzantine citadel and beginning from 1309 used by the Knights Hospitaller as an administrative centre
The Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire after the death of Basil II in 1025
The Byzantine castle of Angelokastro successfully repulsed the Ottomans during the First Great Siege of Corfu in 1537, the siege of 1571, and the Second Great Siege of Corfu in 1716, causing them to abandon their plans to conquer Corfu.
The White Tower of Thessaloniki, one of the best-known Ottoman structures remaining in Greece.
The sortie (exodus) of Messolonghi, depicting the Third Siege of Missolonghi, painted by Theodoros Vryzakis.
The Battle of Navarino in 1827 secured Greek independence.
The Entry of King Otto in Athens, painted by Peter von Hess in 1839.
The territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Greece from 1832 to 1947.
Hellenic Army formation in the World War I Victory Parade in Arc de Triomphe, Paris, July 1919.
Map of Greater Greece after the Treaty of Sèvres, when the Megali Idea seemed close to fulfillment, featuring Eleftherios Venizelos as its supervising genius.
The Axis occupation of Greece.
People in Athens celebrate the liberation from the Axis powers, October 1944. Postwar Greece would soon experience a civil war and political polarization.
Signing at Zappeion by Constantine Karamanlis of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.
Navagio (shipwreck) bay, Zakynthos island
The Greek mainland and several small islands seen from Nydri, Lefkada
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece and mythical abode of the Gods of Olympus
The building of the Hellenic Parliament (Old Royal Palace) in central Athens.
Count Ioannis Kapodistrias, first governor, founder of the modern Greek State, and distinguished European diplomat
Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Prime Minister since 2019
Representation through: 
 embassy
 embassy in another country
 general consulate
 no representation
 Greece
GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Greece exports, 2019
Greece's debt percentage since 1977, compared to the average of the Eurozone
Sun-drying of Zante currant on Zakynthos
Solar-power generation potential in Greece
Greek companies control 16.2% of the world's total merchant fleet making it the largest in the world. They are ranked in the top 5 for all kinds of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers.
Santorini, a popular tourist destination, is ranked as the world's top island in many travel magazines and sites.
The Rio–Antirrio bridge connects mainland Greece to the Peloponnese.
Thessaloniki Science Center and Technology Museum
Georgios Papanikolaou, a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection
Hermoupolis, on the island of Syros, is the capital of the Cyclades.
Population pyramid of Greece in 2017
Our Lady of Tinos
Regions with a traditional presence of languages other than Greek. Today, Greek is the dominant language throughout the country.
A map of the fifty countries with the largest Greek diaspora communities.
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy and the highest research establishment in the country.
The Ionian Academy in Corfu, the first academic institution of modern Greece.
The Ancient Theatre of Epidaurus, still used for theatrical plays.
Close-up of the Charioteer of Delphi, a celebrated statue from the 5th century BC.
Towerhouses of Vatheia in Mani peninsula
Nobile Teatro di San Giacomo di Corfù, the first theatre and opera house of modern Greece
Parnassos Literary Society, painted by Georgios Roilos (Kostis Palamas is at the center)
A statue of Plato in Athens.
Cretan dancers of traditional folk music
Rebetes in Karaiskaki, Piraeus (1933). Left Markos Vamvakaris with bouzouki.
Mikis Theodorakis was one of the most popular and significant Greek composers
A Greek salad, with feta and olives.
Theodoros Angelopoulos, winner of the Palme d'Or in 1998, notable director in the history of the European cinema
Spyridon Louis entering the Panathenaic Stadium at the end of the marathon; 1896 Summer Olympics.
Angelos Charisteas scoring Greece's winning goal in the UEFA Euro 2004 Final
The Greek national basketball team in 2008. Twice European champions (1987 and 2005) and second in the world in 2006
Procession in honor of the Assumption of Virgin Mary (15 August)

Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast.

While most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands was under Ottoman control by the end of the 15th century, Cyprus and Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall to the Ottomans until 1571 and 1670 respectively.

About 500,000 Muslims from Greece, predominantly those defined as Turks, but also Greek Muslims like the Vallahades of western Macedonia, were exchanged with approximately 1.5 million Greeks from Turkey.