Cytolysis

cytolyticcell lysiscytolytic activitylyseosmotic lysisover-expansion
Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.wikipedia
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Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
The presence of a cell wall prevents the membrane from bursting, so cytolysis only occurs in animal and protozoa cells which do not have cell walls.
A major function is to act as pressure vessels, preventing over-expansion of the cell when water enters.

Plasmolysis

plasmolyzecell shrinkageplasmolysed
The reverse process is plasmolysis.
The reverse process, deplasmolysis or cytolysis, can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure and a net flow of water into the cell.

Tonicity

hypertonicisotonichypotonic
It occurs in a hypotonic environment, where water moves into the cell by osmosis and causes its volume to increase to the point where the volume exceeds the membrane's capacity and the cell bursts.
For cells without a cell wall such as animal cells, if the gradient is large enough, the uptake of excess water can produce enough pressure to induce cytolysis, or rupturing of the cell.

Osmotic pressure

osmotic potentialosmoticmembrane osmometry
In animal cells excessive osmotic pressure can result in cytolysis.

Lysis

lysecell lysislysed
Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.

Osmosis

osmoticosmoticallyosmotic gradient
It occurs in a hypotonic environment, where water moves into the cell by osmosis and causes its volume to increase to the point where the volume exceeds the membrane's capacity and the cell bursts. Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.

Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
The presence of a cell wall prevents the membrane from bursting, so cytolysis only occurs in animal and protozoa cells which do not have cell walls.

Protozoa

protozoanprotozoanspellicle
The presence of a cell wall prevents the membrane from bursting, so cytolysis only occurs in animal and protozoa cells which do not have cell walls.

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Osmotic lysis is often one result of a stroke, because of improper nutrient perfusion and waste removal alter cell metabolism.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Osmotic lysis is often one result of a stroke, because of improper nutrient perfusion and waste removal alter cell metabolism.

Extracellular fluid

transcellular fluidextracellular fluid volumetissue fluid
Such malfunction results in an inflow of extracellular fluid into the cells.

Lysozyme

LYZmuramidaselysozymes
Osmotic lysis would be expected to occur when bacterial cells are treated with a hypotonic solution with added lysozyme, which destroys the bacteria's cell walls.

Paramecium

parameciaParamecium caudatumParamecium tetraurelia
For example, the paramecium uses a contractile vacuole, which rapidly pumps out excessive water to prevent the build-up of water and the otherwise subsequent lysis.

Contractile vacuole

contractile vacuolesContractile vacuole complex
For example, the paramecium uses a contractile vacuole, which rapidly pumps out excessive water to prevent the build-up of water and the otherwise subsequent lysis.

Cytosol

cytosolichyaloplasmintracellular fluid
Other organisms pump solutes out of their cytosol, which brings the solute concentration closer to that of their environment.

Concentration

concentrationsanalytical concentrationM
Other organisms pump solutes out of their cytosol, which brings the solute concentration closer to that of their environment.

Water intoxication

water poisoningoverhydrationcan be dangerous

Cupiennin

cupiennins
Cupiennins are a group of small cytolytic peptides from the venom of the wandering spider Cupiennius salei.

Coxsackie A virus

Coxsackie ACoxackie Acoxsackie
Coxsackie A virus (CAV) is a cytolytic Coxsackievirus of the Picornaviridae family, an enterovirus (a group containing the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses).

Candidalysin

Candidalysin is a cytolytic 31-amino acid α-helical amphipathic peptide toxin found in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans that activates epithelial cells.

Perforin

PRF1
Perforin is a pore forming cytolytic protein found in the granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and Natural Killer cells (NK cells).

Indiana vesiculovirus

vesicular stomatitis virusvesicular stomatitisVSV
Natural VSIV infections encompass two steps, cytolytic infections of mammalian hosts and transmission by insects.