Cytopathology

cytologysmear testcellular pathologycytologicalcytopathologistsmearCytologicallycytopathologicalExfoliative cytologycytologic
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.wikipedia
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Georgios Papanikolaou

George PapanicolaouGeorge Nicolas PapanicolaouGeorge Papanikolaou
The discipline was founded by George Nicolas Papanicolaou in 1928.
Παπανικολάου ; 13 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) was a Greek pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, and inventor of the "Pap smear".

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).

Histopathology

histopathologicalhistopathologichistopathologist
Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues.
In contrast, cytopathology examines free cells or tissue micro-fragments (as "cell blocks").

Cytocentrifuge

Cytospincytocentrifugation
However, cytology samples may be prepared in other ways, including cytocentrifugation.
Cytocentrifuges are used in various areas of the clinical laboratory, such as cytopathology, hematology and microbiology, as well as in biological research.

Liquid-based cytology

After sampling, two main techniques can be used: conventional cytology and liquid-based cytology.
Liquid-based cytology is a method of preparing samples for examination in cytopathology.

Cervical cancer

cervicalcervical carcinomacervix
For example, a common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, a screening tool used to detect precancerous cervical lesions that may lead to cervical cancer.
These should not be confused with the Bethesda system terms for Pap test (cytopathology) results.

Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
Cytopathology is frequently, less precisely, called "cytology", which means "the study of cells".
The scientific branch that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level is called cytopathology.

Pleural cavity

pleuralpleural spacepleura
An example of spontaneous exfoliation is when cells of the pleural cavity or peritoneal cavity are shed into the pleural or peritoneal fluid.
When accumulation of pleural fluid is noted, cytopathologic evaluation of the fluid, as well as clinical microscopy, microbiology, chemical studies, tumor markers, pH determination and other more esoteric tests are required as diagnostic tools for determining the causes of this abnormal accumulation.

Pleomorphism (cytology)

pleomorphicpleomorphismNuclear pleomorphism
Pleomorphism is a term used in histology and cytopathology to describe variability in the size, shape and staining of cells and/or their nuclei.

Anatomical pathology

pathological anatomyanatomic pathologypathologist
Anatomical pathology is itself divided in subspecialties, the main ones being surgical pathology (breast, gynecological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, soft tissue, head and neck, dermatopathology), neuropathology, hematopathology cytopathology, and forensic pathology.

Cancer Cytopathology

Cancer Cytopathology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal which covers practice of cytopathology and its related oncology-based disciplines.

American Society of Cytopathology

The American Society of Cytopathology (ASC), founded in 1951, is a national professional society of physicians, cytotechnologists and scientists who are dedicated to cytopathology, which involves the cytologic method of diagnostic pathology.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

-logy

-logia-ologylogy
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Cytopathology is frequently, less precisely, called "cytology", which means "the study of cells".

Screening (medicine)

screeningscreening testmedical screening
For example, a common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, a screening tool used to detect precancerous cervical lesions that may lead to cervical cancer.

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

cervical dysplasiapreneoplastic lesions preneoplastic lesions
For example, a common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, a screening tool used to detect precancerous cervical lesions that may lead to cervical cancer.

Microscope slide

cover slipslidemicroscopic slide
Cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Different types of smear tests may also be used for cancer diagnosis.

Peritoneal cavity

peritonealperitoneal cavities
An example of spontaneous exfoliation is when cells of the pleural cavity or peritoneal cavity are shed into the pleural or peritoneal fluid.

Pap test

Pap smearPap smearsPapanicolaou smear
For example, a common application of cytopathology is the Pap smear, a screening tool used to detect precancerous cervical lesions that may lead to cervical cancer. Examples of mechanical exfoliation include Pap smears, where cells are scraped from the cervix with a cervical spatula, or bronchial brushings, where a bronchoscope is inserted into the trachea and used to evaluate a visible lesion by brushing cells from its surface and subjecting them to cytopathologic analysis.

Bronchoscopy

bronchoscopebronchoscopicbronchoscopies
Examples of mechanical exfoliation include Pap smears, where cells are scraped from the cervix with a cervical spatula, or bronchial brushings, where a bronchoscope is inserted into the trachea and used to evaluate a visible lesion by brushing cells from its surface and subjecting them to cytopathologic analysis.

Trachea

windpipetrachealtracheae
Examples of mechanical exfoliation include Pap smears, where cells are scraped from the cervix with a cervical spatula, or bronchial brushings, where a bronchoscope is inserted into the trachea and used to evaluate a visible lesion by brushing cells from its surface and subjecting them to cytopathologic analysis.

Syringe

hypodermic syringesyringesdisposable syringe
Fine-needle aspiration, or fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), involves use of a needle attached to a syringe to collect cells from lesions or masses in various body organs by microcoring, often with the application of negative pressure (suction) to increase yield.

Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographymedical ultrasonography
FNAC can be performed under palpation guidance (i.e., the clinician can feel the lesion) on a mass in superficial regions like the neck, thyroid or breast; FNAC may be assisted by ultrasound or CAT scan for sampling of deep-seated lesions within the body that cannot be localized via palpation.