A report on Cytopathology

A pair of micrographs of a cytopathology specimen showing a 3-dimensional cluster of cancerous cells (serous carcinoma)
Micrograph of a pilocytic astrocytoma, showing characteristic bipolar cells with long pilocytic (hair-like) processes. Smear preparation. H&E stain
A micrograph of an exfoliative cytopathology specimen (Pap test, Pap stain)
Brushes used to collect samples for cytology.

Branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.

- Cytopathology
A pair of micrographs of a cytopathology specimen showing a 3-dimensional cluster of cancerous cells (serous carcinoma)

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Georgios Papanikolaou

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Georgios Nikolaou Papanikolaou (or George Papanicolaou ; Γεώργιος Ν.

Georgios Nikolaou Papanikolaou (or George Papanicolaou ; Γεώργιος Ν.

Papanikolaou's house in Kymi
Pap test abnormal.

Παπανικολάου ; 13 May 1883 – 19 February 1962) was a Greek physician who was a pioneer in cytopathology and early cancer detection, and inventor of the "Pap smear".

A pathologist examines a tissue section for evidence of cancerous cells while a surgeon observes.

Pathology

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Study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.

Study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.

A pathologist examines a tissue section for evidence of cancerous cells while a surgeon observes.
The advent of the microscope was one of the major developments in the history of pathology. Here researchers at the Centers for Disease Control in 1978 examine cultures containing Legionella pneumophila, the pathogen responsible for Legionnaire's disease.
A modern pathology lab at the Services Institute of Medical Sciences
A bone marrow smear from a case of erythroleukemia. The large cell in the top center is an abnormal erythroblast: it is multinucleated, with megaloblastoid nuclear chromatin This is diagnostic of erythroleukemia.
A malignant melanoma can often be suspected from sight, but confirmation of the diagnosis or outright removal requires an excisional biopsy.
Pathologist performing a human dissection of the abdominal and thoracic organs in an autopsy room
An instance of diagnosis via histopathology, this high-magnification micrograph of a section of cardiac tissue reveals advanced cardiac amyloidosis. This sample was attained through an autopsy.
This coronal cross-section of a brain reveals a significant arteriovenous malformation that occupies much of the parietal lobe.
This tissue cross-section demonstrates the gross pathology of polycystic kidneys.
Brain biopsy under stereotaxy. A small part of the tumor is taken via a needle with a vacuum system.
Clinical chemistry: an automated blood chemistry analyzer
Many conditions, such as this case of geographic tongue, can be diagnosed partly on gross examination, but may be confirmed with tissue pathology.
An anatomical pathology instructor uses a microscope with multiple eyepieces to instruct students in diagnostic microscopy.
This field post-mortem of a ewe has revealed lesions consistent with acute haemolytic pneumonia, possibly due to Pasteurella haemolytica.
A tobacco plant infected with the tobacco mosaic virus

Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types (comparing, for example, cytopathology, hematopathology, and histopathology), organs (as in renal pathology), and physiological systems (oral pathology), as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination (as with forensic pathology).

Micrograph showing contraction band necrosis, a histopathologic finding of myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Histopathology

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Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

Histopathology (compound of three Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", πάθος pathos "suffering", and -λογία -logia "study of") refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

Micrograph showing contraction band necrosis, a histopathologic finding of myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Items used for submitting specimens: (Biopsy) wrap, (biopsy) sponge, (tissue processing) cassette and (biopsy) bag.

In contrast, cytopathology examines free cells or tissue micro-fragments (as "cell blocks").

Location of cervical cancer and an example of normal and abnormal cells

Cervical cancer

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Cancer arising from the cervix.

Cancer arising from the cervix.

Location of cervical cancer and an example of normal and abnormal cells
Location of cervical cancer and an example of normal and abnormal cells
In most cases, cells infected with the HPV heal on their own. In some cases, however, the virus continues to spread and becomes an invasive cancer.
Cervix in relation to upper part of vagina and posterior portion of uterus, showing difference in covering epithelium of inner structures
Cervical cancer seen on a T2-weighted sagittal MR image of the pelvis
This large squamous carcinoma (bottom of picture) has obliterated the cervix and invaded the lower uterine segment. The uterus also has a round leiomyoma up higher.
Histopathologic image (H&E stain) of carcinoma in situ (also called CIN3), stage 0: The normal architecture of stratified squamous epithelium is replaced by irregular cells that extend throughout its full thickness. Normal columnar epithelium is also seen.
The location of cervical cancer can be described in terms of quadrants, or corresponding to a clock face when the subject is in supine position.
Cervical screening test vehicle in Taiwan
Negative visual inspection with acetic acid of the cervix
Positive visual inspection with acetic acid of the cervix for CIN-1
Cervical cryotherapy
Brachytherapy for cervical cancer
A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention public service announcement about cervical cancer health disparities in the United States.
Stage 1A cervical cancer
Stage 1B cervical cancer
Stage 2A cervical cancer
Stage 2B cervical cancer
Stage 3B cervical cancer
Stage 4A cervical cancer
Stage 4B cervical cancer
Diagram showing the area removed with a posterior surgery
Diagram showing the area removed with a total operation
Diagram showing the area removed with an anterior operation

These should not be confused with the Bethesda system terms for Pap test (cytopathology) results.

Brushes used to collect samples for cytology.

Liquid-based cytology

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Brushes used to collect samples for cytology.

Liquid-based cytology is a method of preparing samples for examination in cytopathology.

Example of a cytocentrifuge

Cytocentrifuge

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Specialized centrifuge used to concentrate cells in fluid specimens onto a microscope slide so that they can be stained and examined.

Specialized centrifuge used to concentrate cells in fluid specimens onto a microscope slide so that they can be stained and examined.

Example of a cytocentrifuge
Lymphoma cells in cerebrospinal fluid

Cytocentrifuges are used in various areas of the clinical laboratory, such as cytopathology, hematology and microbiology, as well as in biological research.

A drawing of a prokaryotic cell

Cell biology

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Branch of biology that studies the structure, function, and behavior of cells.

Branch of biology that studies the structure, function, and behavior of cells.

A drawing of a prokaryotic cell
A diagram of an animal cell
The process of cell division in the animal cell cycle

The scientific branch that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level is called cytopathology.

Proestrus in a canine

Vaginal cytology

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Microscopic examination of cells from the vaginal epithelium.

Microscopic examination of cells from the vaginal epithelium.

Proestrus in a canine
Estrus in a canine

In a normal vaginal smear, lactational cells, navicular cells, endocervical cells, endometrial cells, trophoblastic cells, and leucocytes may be present.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the pleurae of the pleural sac that surrounds each lung.

Pleural cavity

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Potential space between the pleurae of the pleural sac that surrounds each lung.

Potential space between the pleurae of the pleural sac that surrounds each lung.

The pleural cavity is the potential space between the pleurae of the pleural sac that surrounds each lung.
The pleural cavity is the potential space between the pleurae of the pleural sac that surrounds each lung.
A pleural effusion can form when fluid builds up in the pleural cavity (labelled as pleural space).

When accumulation of pleural fluid is noted, cytopathologic evaluation of the fluid, as well as clinical microscopy, microbiology, chemical studies, tumor markers, pH determination and other more esoteric tests are required as diagnostic tools for determining the causes of this abnormal accumulation.