Czech language

CzechcsCzech-languageBohemianczlanguage Czech(CzechczeCzech word
Czech (čeština ), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.wikipedia
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Slovak language

SlovakSlovakianSlovak-language
Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree. This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

Moravian dialects

Moravianlocal dialectdialects in Moravia
The Moravian dialects spoken in the eastern part of the country are also classified as Czech, although some of their eastern variants are closer to Slovak.
Moravian dialects (moravská nářečí, moravština) are the varieties of Czech spoken in Moravia, a historical region in the southeast of the Czech Republic.

Czech National Revival

National RevivalCzech nationalismCzech national movement
In the later 18th to mid-19th century, the modern written standard became codified in the context of the Czech National Revival.
The purpose of this movement was to revive the Czech language, culture and national identity.

West Slavic languages

West SlavicWestWest Slavic language
Czech (čeština ), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group. Czech is a member of the West Slavic sub-branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. The diversification of the Czech-Slovak group within West Slavic began around that time, marked among other things by its ephemeral use of the voiced velar fricative consonant and consistent stress on the first syllable.
They include Polish, Czech, Slovak, Silesian, Kashubian, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian.

Polish language

Polishplpol.
This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak.
Polish is written with the standard Polish alphabet, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script . Polish is closely related to Czech and Slovak.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
Czech is a member of the West Slavic sub-branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Of these, 10 have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian (of the East group), Polish, Czech and Slovak (of the West group) and Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian and Bulgarian (of the South group).

Upper Sorbian language

Upper SorbianSorbianUpper
This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak.
It is grouped in the West Slavic language branch, together with Lower Sorbian, Czech, Polish, Slovak and Kashubian.

Ř

Czech has a raised alveolar trill, which is not known to occur as a phoneme in any other language, represented by the grapheme ř.
The grapheme Ř, ř (R with háček, example of Czech pronunciation: ) is a letter used in alphabets of the Czech and Upper Sorbian languages.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
Czech is closely related to Slovak, to the point of mutual intelligibility to a very high degree.
Czech: Slovak (significantly)

Voiced velar fricative

ɣvelar fricativepost-velar
The diversification of the Czech-Slovak group within West Slavic began around that time, marked among other things by its ephemeral use of the voiced velar fricative consonant and consistent stress on the first syllable.

Jan Hus

HusJohn HussHussites
Jan Hus contributed significantly to the standardization of Czech orthography, advocated for widespread literacy among Czech commoners (particularly in religion) and made early efforts to model written Czech after the spoken language.
Although church authorities banned many works of Wycliffe in 1403, Hus translated Trialogus into Czech and helped to distribute it.

Slovakia

🇸🇰SlovakSVK
The five countries with the greatest use of Czech were the Czech Republic (98.77 percent), Slovakia (24.86 percent), Portugal (1.93 percent), Poland (0.98 percent) and Germany (0.47 percent).
It derives from the Czech word Slováky; previous German forms were Windischen landen and Windenland (the 15th century).

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Czech is a member of the West Slavic sub-branch of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family.
Slavic (from Proto-Slavic), attested from the 9th century AD (possibly earlier), earliest texts in Old Church Slavonic. Slavic languages include Bulgarian, Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Montenegrin, Macedonian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovenian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Rusyn.

Josef Dobrovský

DobrovskyDobrovskýDobrovský, Josef
During the national revival, in 1809 linguist and historian Josef Dobrovský released a German-language grammar of Old Czech entitled Ausführliches Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache (Comprehensive Doctrine of the Bohemian Language). Dobrovský had intended his book to be descriptive, and did not think Czech had a realistic chance of returning as a major language.
He received his first education in the German school at Horšovský Týn in Plzeň district, made his first acquaintance with the Czech language and soon made himself fluent in it at the Německý Brod gymnasium, and then studied for some time under the Jesuits at Klatovy.

Kashubian language

KashubianCashubiancsb.
This branch includes Polish, Kashubian, Upper and Lower Sorbian and Slovak.
Kashubian literature has been translated into Czech, Polish, English, German, Belarusian, Slovene and Finnish.

Josef Jungmann

JungmannJungmann, Joseph
However, Josef Jungmann and other revivalists used Dobrovský's book to advocate for a Czech linguistic revival.
Together with Josef Dobrovský, he is considered to be a creator of the modern Czech language.

Strč prst skrz krk

Strč prst skrz krk ("Stick [your] finger through [your] throat") is a well-known Czech tongue twister using only syllabic consonants.
Strč prst skrz krk is a Czech and Slovak tongue-twister meaning "stick a finger through the throat".

Clitic

encliticprocliticenclitics
Each word usually has primary stress on its first syllable, except for enclitics (minor, monosyllabic, unstressed syllables).
Czech: Nevím, chtělo-li by se mi si to tam však také vyzkoušet.

Czech declension

Czechdeclensiondeclension pattern
This distinction describes the declension patterns of nouns, which is based on the category of a noun's ending consonant.
Czech declension is a complex system of grammatically determined modifications of nouns, adjectives, pronouns and numerals in the Czech language.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
A Eurobarometer survey conducted from January to March 2012 found that the first language of 98 percent of Czech citizens was Czech, the third-highest in the European Union (behind Greece and Hungary).
The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.

Bible of Kralice

Bible kralickáCzech Bible of Kralice
The publication of the Kralice Bible between 1579 and 1593 (the first complete Czech translation of the Bible from the original languages) became very important for standardization of the Czech language in the following centuries.
The Bible of Kralice, also called the Kralice Bible (Bible kralická), was the first complete translation of the Bible from the original languages into the Czech language.

Stress (linguistics)

stressstressedunstressed
Each word usually has primary stress on its first syllable, except for enclitics (minor, monosyllabic, unstressed syllables).
For example, in Czech, Finnish, Icelandic and Hungarian, the stress almost always comes on the first syllable of a word.

Palatal consonant

Palatalpalatalspalatal consonants
Only a few languages in northern Eurasia, the Americas and central Africa contrast palatal stops with postalveolar affricates - as in Hungarian, Czech, Latvian, Macedonian, Slovak, Turkish and Albanian.

Bohemian Reformation

ReformationBohemianBohemian Brethren
Literary activity becomes widespread in the early 15th century in the context of the Bohemian Reformation.
After French and Italian the Czech language became the third modern European language in which the whole Bible was translated.

Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

alveolar trillrtrill
Czech has a raised alveolar trill, which is not known to occur as a phoneme in any other language, represented by the grapheme ř.
In Czech, there are two contrasting alveolar trills.