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Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989.
The events of the full-blown revolution began in Poland in 1989 and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Romania.

1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia

1960 Constitutiona new constitutionnew constitution
The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989.
The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Ústava Československé socialistické / Československej socialistickej republiky in Czech / Slovak), promulgated on 11 July 1960 as the constitutional law 100/1960 Sb., was the third constitution of Czechoslovakia, and the second of the Communist era.

Velvet Revolution

fall of communism1989fall of the communist regime
The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989.
The result was the end of 41 years of one-party rule in Czechoslovakia, and the subsequent dismantling of the command economy and conversion to a parliamentary republic.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechCzechoslovakian
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech and Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) was the name of Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 23 April 1990, when the country was under communist rule.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
Formally known as the Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, it has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective. The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was bounded on the West by West Germany and East Germany, on the North by Poland, on the East by the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) and on the South by Hungary and Austria.
The country bordered Afghanistan, China, Czechoslovakia, Finland, Hungary, Iran, Mongolia, North Korea, Norway, Poland, Romania, and Turkey from 1945 to 1991.

Edvard Beneš

BenešEduard BenešEduard Benes
Before the Soviet liberation of Czechoslovakia in 1945, Edvard Beneš, the Czechoslovak leader, agreed to Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's demands for unconditional agreement with Soviet foreign policy and the Beneš decrees.
The second came about with the 1948 communist coup, which created a communist regime.

Czech and Slovak Federative Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzech and Slovak Federal RepublicCzechoslovak Federative Republic
Shortly after the Velvet Revolution, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was renamed to the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic.
Since 1960, Czechoslovakia's official name had been the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR).

Eastern Bloc

Soviet blocCommunist BlocSocialist Bloc
While Beneš was not a Moscow cadre and several domestic reforms of other Eastern Bloc countries were not part of Beneš' plan, Stalin did not object because the plan included property expropriation and he was satisfied with the relative strength of communists in Czechoslovakia compared to other Eastern Bloc countries.
Generally, in Western Europe the term Eastern Bloc referred to the USSR and its East European satellite states in the Comecon (East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania); in Asia, the Soviet Bloc comprised the Mongolian People's Republic, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and the People's Republic of Kampuchea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, and the People's Republic of China (before the Sino-Soviet split in 1961).

National Front (Czechoslovakia)

National FrontCzechoslovak National FrontCzechoslovakia
In April 1945, the Third Republic was formed, led by a National Front of six parties.
During the Communist era in Czechoslovakia (1948–1989) it was the vehicle for control of all political and social activity by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ).

Klement Gottwald

GottwaldPresident GottwaldGottwalda
Klement Gottwald, leader of the KSČ, became Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia.
He was the first leader of Communist Czechoslovakia from 1948 to 1953.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
The traditional name Československá republika (Czechoslovak Republic) was changed on 11 July 1960 following implementation of the 1960 Constitution of Czechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victory of socialism" in the country, and remained so until the Velvet Revolution in November 1989.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of former Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact which included the People's Republic of Poland, the German Democratic Republic, the People's Republic of Hungary, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Socialist Republic of Romania, the People's Socialist Republic of Albania and the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
Not only was this the only time a Communist Party won a free election anywhere in Europe during the Cold War era, but it was one of only two free elections ever held in the Soviet bloc, the other one having been held in Hungary a year earlier. With the exception of the Prague Spring in the late-1960s, Czechoslovakia was characterized by the absence of democracy and competitiveness of its Western European counterparts as part of the Cold War.
The USSR crushed the 1968 Prague Spring liberalization program in Czechoslovakia, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War (1955–75), which ended with the defeat of the US-backed South Vietnam, prompting further adjustments.

Slovakia

SlovakSVKSlovak Republic
However, Slovak politicians felt this diminished Slovakia's equal stature, and demanded that the country's name be spelled with a hyphen (i.e. "Czecho-Slovak Republic"), as it was spelled from Czechoslovak independence in 1918 until 1920, and again in 1938 and 1939.
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was never part of the Soviet Union and remained independent to a degree.

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948Communist coup d'étatCommunist coup
Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective.
The 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état (often simply the Czech coup) (Únor 1948, Február 1948, both meaning "February 1948") – in the Communist era known as "Victorious February" (Vítězný únor, Víťazný február) – was an event in late February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, marking the onset of four decades of communist rule in the country.

Eastern Bloc politics

De-Stalinization (Eastern Bloc)Eastern bloc communismSecret Police
Because of the Communist Party's strength and Beneš's loyalty, unlike in other Central and Eastern European countries, the Kremlin did not require Eastern Bloc politics or "reliable" cadres in Czechoslovak power positions, and the executive and legislative branches retained their traditional structures.
Other states were converted into Soviet Satellite states, such as the People's Republic of Poland, the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the People's Republic of Hungary, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the People's Republic of Romania, the People's Republic of Albania, and later the German Democratic Republic from the Soviet zone of German occupation.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
With the exception of the Prague Spring in the late-1960s, Czechoslovakia was characterized by the absence of democracy and competitiveness of its Western European counterparts as part of the Cold War.
The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization and mass protest in Czechoslovakia as a Communist state after World War II.

1946 Czechoslovak parliamentary election

19461946 elections1946 election
The Communists were the big winners in the 1946 elections, taking a total of 114 seats (they ran a separate list in Slovakia).
Just two years later, the Communists staged a coup d'etat and instituted an undisguised Communist regime.

Czech Socialist Republic

Czech RepublicCzech SRČSR
In 1969, the country became a federative republic comprising the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic.
The Czech Socialist Republic (Česká socialistická republika in Czech; abbreviated ČSR) was a republic within the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic that is now the independent Czech Republic.

East Germany

East GermanGerman Democratic RepublicGDR
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was bounded on the West by West Germany and East Germany, on the North by Poland, on the East by the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) and on the South by Hungary and Austria.
Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north; Poland to the east; Czechoslovakia to the southeast and West Germany to the southwest and west.

Satellite state

satellitesatellite statessatellites
Formally known as the Fourth Czechoslovak Republic, it has been regarded as a satellite state of the Soviet Union.

Hungarian People's Republic

HungaryPeople's Republic of HungaryCommunist Hungary
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was bounded on the West by West Germany and East Germany, on the North by Poland, on the East by the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) and on the South by Hungary and Austria.
Geographically, it bordered Romania and the Soviet Union (via the Ukrainian SSR) to the east; Yugoslavia to the southwest; Czechoslovakia to the north and Austria to the west.

People's Republic

people's democracyDemocratic People's RepublicPeople’s Republic
Following the coup d'état of February 1948, when the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power with the support of the Soviet Union, the country was declared a people's republic after the Ninth-of-May Constitution became effective.
Other titles commonly used by Marxist–Leninist and socialist states are democratic republic (e.g. the German Democratic Republic or the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia between 1943 and 1946) and socialist republic (e.g. the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic).

Comecon

Council for Mutual Economic AssistanceCMEACouncil for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon)
Communist-controlled Czechoslovakia was an active participant in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), Warsaw Pact, the UN and its specialized agencies, and Non-Aligned Movement; it was a signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
The Comecon was founded in 1949 by the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania.

Helsinki Accords

Helsinki Final ActConference on Security and Cooperation in EuropeHelsinki Agreement
Communist-controlled Czechoslovakia was an active participant in the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), Warsaw Pact, the UN and its specialized agencies, and Non-Aligned Movement; it was a signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakiainvasion of CzechoslovakiaOperation Danube
The largest exoduses occurred following the communist takeover in February 1948 and following the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968, with around 200,000 people leaving in each wave.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact countries – the Soviet Union, Poland, Bulgaria, East Germany and Hungary – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.