Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCHCSCzechoslovakianCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak stateCzechoslovaksCSRCZE
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.wikipedia
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Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

dissolutionVelvet Divorcebreakup
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of a federal republic.

Velvet Revolution

fall of communismfall of the communist regime1989
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. 1990–1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, and reverted to a democratic republic.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.

Central Europe

CentralCentral Europeanmiddle Europe
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The centre of interest was moved to its eastern part – the countries that have (re)appeared on the map of Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.

Sudetenland

SudetenSudeten crisisSudeten Germans
1938–1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, and the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. This policy led to unrest among the non-Czech population, particularly in German-speaking Sudetenland, which initially had proclaimed itself part of the Republic of German-Austria in accordance with the self-determination prinicple.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion
A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded.
The process of de-Stalinization in Czechoslovakia had begun under Antonín Novotný in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but had progressed more slowly than in most other states of the Eastern Bloc.

Revolutions of 1989

fall of communismthe fall of the Iron Curtaincollapse of communism
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation.
Czechoslovakia dissolved three years after the end of Communist rule, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1992.

Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

CzechoslovakiaČSSRcommunist Czechoslovakia
1948–1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country officially became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union.
The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech and Československá socialistická republika, ČSSR) ruled Czechoslovakia from 1948 until 23 April 1990, when the country was under communist rule.

Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Bohemia and MoraviaProtectorateCzech Protectorate
1939–1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and its Allies; after the German invasion of Russia, it was also recognised by the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations.
On 10 October 1938, when Czechoslovakia was forced to accept the terms of the Munich Agreement, Germany incorporated the Sudetenland, on the Czechoslovak border with Germany and Austria proper, with its majority of ethnic German inhabitants, directly into the Reich.

Prague Spring

invasion of CzechoslovakiaSoviet invasion of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded.
The process of de-Stalinization in Czechoslovakia had begun under Antonín Novotný in the late 1950s and early 1960s, but had progressed more slowly than in most other states of the Eastern Bloc.

Carpatho-Ukraine

Carpathian UkraineRutheniaTranscarpathia
1938–1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, and the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland.
Soon after the implementation of the Munich Agreement of 29 September 1938 (by which Czechoslovakia lost much of its border region to Nazi Germany) Carpathian Ruthenia and Slovakia declared their autonomy within Czechoslovakia, which Prague accepted.

Third Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak government
1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR), or Czechoslovakia
During World War II, Czechoslovakia disappeared from the map of Europe.

Carpathian Ruthenia

TranscarpathiaZakarpattiaCarpathia
1946–1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union.
During the period of Czechoslovak administration in the first half of the 20th century, the region was referred to for a while as Rusinsko (Ruthenia) or Karpatske Rusinsko, and later as Subcarpathian Rus (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatská Rus) or Subcarpathian Ukraine (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatská Ukrajina), and from 1928 as the Subcarpathoruthenian Land.

Czech and Slovak Federative Republic

CzechoslovakiaCSFRCzechoslovak Federative Republic
1990–1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, and reverted to a democratic republic.
After the fall of communism in 1989, Czechoslovakia adopted the official name Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (, Česká a Slovenská Federatívna Republika; ČSFR) during the period from 23 April 1990 until 31 December 1992, when the country was dissolved into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Sovereign state

statestatessovereign states
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia ( Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko ), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
L.C. Green cited the recognition of the unborn Polish and Czechoslovak states in World War I and explained that "since recognition of statehood is a matter of discretion, it is open to any existing State to accept as a state any entity it wishes, regardless of the existence of territory or of an established government."

Young Czech Party

Young CzechEdvard GrégrJulius Grégr
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat (Austrian Parliament), first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, and again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl.
It initiated the democratization of Czech political parties and led to the establishment of the political base of Czechoslovakia.

Socialist Republic of Romania

communist regimeRomaniaRomanian communist regime
Romania 1918–1938
Romanian forces fought under Soviet command, driving through Northern Transylvania into Hungary proper, and on into Czechoslovakia and Austria.

Milan Rastislav Štefánik

Milan ŠtefánikŠtefánikMilan Stefanik
With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists.
During World War I, he served at the same time as a general in the French Army and as Minister of War for Czechoslovakia.

Bohemia

BohemianCzechČechy
Bohemia and Moravia, under Austrian rule, were Czech-speaking industrial centres, while Slovakia, which was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, was an undeveloped agrarian region.
After World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of preparation. 1946–1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union.
saw the emergence of the Soviet Union as a superpower, with strong influence over Eastern Europe and parts of Asia. The European and Japanese empires were shattered and communist parties played a leading role in many independence movements. Marxist–Leninist governments modeled on the Soviet Union took power with Soviet assistance in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Romania. A Marxist–Leninist government was also created under Marshal Tito in Yugoslavia, but Tito's independent policies led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the Cominform which had replaced the Comintern and Titoism was branded "deviationist". Albania also became an independent Marxist–Leninist state after World War II. Communism was seen as a rival of and a threat to western capitalism for most of the 20th century.

Czechs

CzechBohemianCzech people
The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people.
The Czech are closely related to the neighbouring Slovaks (with whom they constituted Czechoslovakia 1918–1993).

Little Entente

Ententeneighbouring countriesneighbouring states
Foreign minister Beneš became the prime architect of the Czechoslovak-Romanian-Yugoslav alliance (the "Little Entente", 1921–38) directed against Hungarian attempts to reclaim lost areas.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and the prevention of a Habsburg restoration.

Edvard Beneš

BenešPresident BenešBeneš, Edvard
He was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš (1884–1948).
Czechoslovakia was not consulted.

Republic of German-Austria

German-AustriaAustriarump Austria
This policy led to unrest among the non-Czech population, particularly in German-speaking Sudetenland, which initially had proclaimed itself part of the Republic of German-Austria in accordance with the self-determination prinicple.
The assembly included representatives from Bohemia, Moravia, and Austrian Silesia who refused to submit to the new state of Czechoslovakia which had been declared on 28 October 1918.

Karel Kramář

Dr. Karel KramářKarel Kramá
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat (Austrian Parliament), first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, and again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl.
He became the leader of the Young Czech Party in Austria-Hungary and later of the National Democratic Party in Czechoslovakia.

Soviet Union

SovietUSSRSoviets
1948–1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country officially became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1939–1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and its Allies; after the German invasion of Russia, it was also recognised by the Soviet Union. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations.
In 1968, the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact allies invaded Czechoslovakia to halt the Prague Spring reforms.