A report on DARPA

DARPA's former headquarters in the Virginia Square neighborhood of Arlington. The agency is currently located in a new building at 675 North Randolph St.

Research and development agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.

- DARPA

127 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Raytheon BBN

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American research and development company, based next to Fresh Pond in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

American research and development company, based next to Fresh Pond in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

Dilution refrigerator at BBN Technologies, used to create superconducting quantum computing devices
Dr. Talib Hussain, senior scientist at BBN Technologies, looks over the shoulder of a recruit during a training session on the Virtual Environments for Ship and Shore Experiential Learning system at Recruit Training Command.
The Internet, circa 1985. BBN built and operated the MILNET, ARPANET, SATNET, and Wideband networks

BBN is best known for its DARPA-sponsored research.

ARPANET logical map, March 1977

ARPANET

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The first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite.

The first wide-area packet-switched network with distributed control and one of the first networks to implement the TCP/IP protocol suite.

ARPANET logical map, March 1977
ARPANET access points in the 1970s
First ARPANET IMP log: the first message ever sent via the ARPANET, 10:30 pm PST on 29 October 1969 (6:30 UTC on 30 October 1969). This IMP Log excerpt, kept at UCLA, describes setting up a message transmission from the UCLA SDS Sigma 7 Host computer to the SRI SDS 940 Host computer.
ARPA network map 1973
Internetworking demonstration, linking the ARPANET, PRNET, and SATNET in 1977
ARPANET in a broader context

The ARPANET was established by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.

J. C. R. Licklider

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American psychologist and computer scientist who is considered to be among the most prominent figures in computer science development and general computing history.

American psychologist and computer scientist who is considered to be among the most prominent figures in computer science development and general computing history.

A SAGE operator's terminal

In October 1962, Licklider was appointed head of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at ARPA, the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, an appointment he kept through July 1964.

Information Processing Techniques Office

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The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), originally "Command and Control Research", was part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense.

Air Force Research Laboratory – Emblem

Air Force Research Laboratory

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Scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces.

Scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces.

Air Force Research Laboratory – Emblem
Predecessor emblems of the AFRL
AFRL sites
Martin–Marietta X-24B
Artist's rendition of the X-37.
YAL-1 in flight.
A US dazzler style weapon.
RS-68 rocket engine test firing at Edwards
Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS)
TacSat-3 computer model

Since the Laboratory's formation in 1997, it has conducted numerous experiments and technical demonstrations in conjunction with NASA, Department of Energy National Laboratories, DARPA, and other research organizations within the Department of Defense.

Videoconferencing on NLS

NLS (computer system)

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Revolutionary computer collaboration system developed in the 1960s.

Revolutionary computer collaboration system developed in the 1960s.

Videoconferencing on NLS

It was funded by ARPA (the predecessor to Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency), NASA, and the US Air Force.

Global Positioning System

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Satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Space Force.

Satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Space Force.

GPS constellation system animation
AFSPC Vice Commander Lt. Gen. DT Thompson presents Dr. Gladys West with an award as she is inducted into the Air Force Space and Missile Pioneers Hall of Fame.
Unlaunched GPS block II-A satellite on display at the San Diego Air & Space Museum
A visual example of a 24-satellite GPS constellation in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice how the number of satellites in view from a given point on the Earth's surface changes with time. The point in this example is in Golden, Colorado, USA (39.7469°N, -105.2108°W).
Ground monitor station used from 1984 to 2007, on display at the Air Force Space and Missile Museum.
GPS receivers come in a variety of formats, from devices integrated into cars, phones, and watches, to dedicated devices such as these.
The first portable GPS unit, a Leica WM 101, displayed at the Irish National Science Museum at Maynooth.
A typical OEM GPS receiver module measuring 15x17 mm
A typical GPS receiver with integrated antenna.
This antenna is mounted on the roof of a hut containing a scientific experiment needing precise timing.
Attaching a GPS guidance kit to a dumb bomb, March 2003.
M982 Excalibur GPS-guided artillery shell.
Demodulating and Decoding GPS Satellite Signals using the Coarse/Acquisition Gold code.
2-D Cartesian true-range multilateration (trilateration) scenario.
Three satellites (labeled as "stations" A, B, C) have known locations. The true times it takes for a radio signal to travel from each satellite to the receiver are unknown, but the true time differences are known. Then, each time difference locates the receiver on a branch of a hyperbola focused on the satellites. The receiver is then located at one of the two intersections.
A smaller circle inscribed and tangent to other circles, that need not necessarily be mutually tangent.

In 1959, ARPA (renamed DARPA in 1972) also played a role in TRANSIT.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

Internet

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Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

In the 1960s, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense funded research into time-sharing of computers.

Transit (satellite)

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The first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.

The first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.

Operational Transit satellite
Transit-1-Satellite Prototype
Vestibule and Quonset hut housing Transit satellite tracking station 019. 1. Triad satellite magnetometer down load antenna. 2. flag pole, 3. Utility pole in background, 4 Revolving light temperature alarm, 5 VLF antenna, 6–9 Doppler satellite tracking antennas, 10. stove pipe for heater, 11 Flood light for low visibility conditions, 12 fuel tank.
Some of the equipment inside Transit satellite tracking station 019. 1. Automatic Control Unit, 2. timer-counter, 3. Time burst detector, 4. time conversion chart, 5. satellite ephemeris, 6. tracking receiver, 7. time display, 8 Header-Tailer programmer, 9. Digitizer and main clock, 10. master oscillator, 11. strip chart recorder, 12. paper tape punch, 13. short wave receiver.   Out of sight: VLF receiver, refraction correction unit, backup battery system, power supplies, AC voltage regulators.
Orbits of the five Transit Satellites (text in German.)

The Transit satellite system, sponsored by the Navy and developed jointly by DARPA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, under the leadership of Dr. Richard Kershner at Johns Hopkins, was the first satellite-based geopositioning system.

Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

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Intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Intelligence demonstrated by machines, as opposed to the natural intelligence displayed by animals including humans.

Silver didrachma from Crete depicting Talos, an ancient mythical automaton with artificial intelligence
An ontology represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts.
A parse tree represents the syntactic structure of a sentence according to some formal grammar.
Feature detection (pictured: edge detection) helps AI compose informative abstract structures out of raw data.
Kismet, a robot with rudimentary social skills
A particle swarm seeking the global minimum
Expectation-maximization clustering of Old Faithful eruption data starts from a random guess but then successfully converges on an accurate clustering of the two physically distinct modes of eruption.
A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.
Representing images on multiple layers of abstraction in deep learning
For this project the AI had to learn the typical patterns in the colors and brushstrokes of Renaissance painter Raphael. The portrait shows the face of the actress Ornella Muti, "painted" by AI in the style of Raphael.
AI Patent families for functional application categories and sub categories. Computer vision represents 49 percent of patent families related to a functional application in 2016.
The word "robot" itself was coined by Karel Čapek in his 1921 play R.U.R., the title standing for "Rossum's Universal Robots"

By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense