DARPA

Defense Advanced Research Projects AgencyAdvanced Research Projects AgencyARPADefense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)Defense Advanced Research Project AgencyAdvanced Research Project AgencyDefence Advanced Research Projects AgencyDefense Advanced Projects Research AgencyAdvanced Research Agency of the Department of DefenseAdvanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.wikipedia
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Information Processing Techniques Office

Information Processing Technology OfficeDARPA Information Processing Techniques OfficeInformation Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)
It was Ruina who hired J. C. R. Licklider as the first administrator of the Information Processing Techniques Office, which played a vital role in creation of ARPANET, the basis for the future Internet.
The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), originally "Command and Control Research", was part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense.

ARPANET

ARPA networkDarpanetAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network
It was Ruina who hired J. C. R. Licklider as the first administrator of the Information Processing Techniques Office, which played a vital role in creation of ARPANET, the basis for the future Internet.
The ARPANET was initially founded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the United States Department of Defense.

United States Department of Defense

Department of DefenseU.S. Department of DefenseUS Department of Defense
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Other Defense agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the Strategic Capabilities Office (SCO), the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), the Missile Defense Agency (MDA), the Defense Health Agency (DHA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), the Defense Counterintelligence and Security Agency (formerly the DSS), and the Pentagon Force Protection Agency (PFPA), all of which are subordinate to the Secretary of Defense.

Project AGILE

This allowed ARPA to concentrate its efforts on the Project Defender (defense against ballistic missiles), Project Vela (nuclear test detection), and Project AGILE (counterinsurgency R&D) programs, and to begin work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, and materials sciences.
Project AGILE was an Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) project in the 1960s that investigated means for engaging in remote, limited warfare of an asymmetric type.

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory CouncilU.S. space program
Johnson and York were both keen on space projects, but when NASA was established later in 1958 all space projects and most of ARPA's funding were transferred to it.
While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.

Project Vela

Vela 4Vela programVela Project
This allowed ARPA to concentrate its efforts on the Project Defender (defense against ballistic missiles), Project Vela (nuclear test detection), and Project AGILE (counterinsurgency R&D) programs, and to begin work on computer processing, behavioral sciences, and materials sciences.
In August 1959, several groups focused on detecting underground nuclear tests were established within the US Department of Defense; on September 2, 1959, the Secretary of Defense assigned the research responsibilities to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).

Transit (satellite)

TransitTransit 1BAN/UYK-1
ARPA at this point (1959) played an early role in Transit (also called NavSat) a predecessor to the Global Positioning System (GPS).
The Transit satellite system, sponsored by the Navy and developed jointly by DARPA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, under the leadership of Dr. Richard Kirschner at Johns Hopkins, was the first satellite-based geopositioning system.

Aspen Movie Map

DARPA also funded the development of the Douglas Engelbart's NLS computer system and The Mother of All Demos; and the Aspen Movie Map, which was probably the first hypermedia system and an important precursor of virtual reality.
The Aspen Movie Map was a revolutionary hypermedia system developed at MIT by a team working with Andrew Lippman in 1978 with funding from ARPA.

100 Year Starship

100-Year StarshipHundred-Year Starship
In fall 2011, DARPA hosted the 100-Year Starship Symposium with the aim of getting the public to start thinking seriously about interstellar travel.
The 100 Year Starship (100YSS) is a joint U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) grant project to a private entity.

MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory

Project MACMIT Artificial Intelligence LaboratoryComputer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory
Concerning information processing, DARPA made great progress, initially through its support of the development of time-sharing (all modern operating systems rely on concepts invented for the Multics system, developed by a cooperation among Bell Labs, General Electric and MIT, which DARPA supported by funding Project MAC at MIT with an initial two-million-dollar grant).
On July 1, 1963, Project MAC (the Project on Mathematics and Computation, later backronymed to Multiple Access Computer, Machine Aided Cognitions, or Man and Computer) was launched with a $2 million grant from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Regina E. Dugan

Regina Dugan
She was the first female director of the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), where she served from July 2009 until March 2012.

Surveillance

electronic surveillancestakeoutmonitoring
The DEFENDER and AGILE programs formed the foundation of DARPA sensor, surveillance, and directed energy R&D, particularly in the study of radar, infrared sensing, and x-ray/gamma ray detection.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding a research project called Combat Zones That See that will link up cameras across a city to a centralized monitoring station, identify and track individuals and vehicles as they move through the city, and report "suspicious" activity (such as waving arms, looking side-to-side, standing in a group, etc.).

Information Awareness Office

Total Information AwarenessHuman Identification At A DistanceGenisys
The Information Awareness Office (IAO) was established by the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in January 2002 to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying surveillance and information technology to track and monitor terrorists and other asymmetric threats to U.S. national security by achieving "Total Information Awareness" (TIA).

Herbert York

Herbert F. YorkHerb York
Herbert York from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was hired as his scientific assistant.
After leaving the laboratory in 1958, he held numerous positions in both government and academia, including the first Chief Scientist of the Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the first Director of Defense Research and Engineering.

Information Innovation Office

Information Innovation Office (I2O)
The Information Innovation Office (I2O) is one of the seven technical offices within DARPA, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense that is responsible for the development of advanced technology for national security.

Arati Prabhakar

Arati Prabhakar (born February 2, 1959) is an American engineer and the former head of DARPA, the United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, a position she held from July 30, 2012 to January 20, 2017.

Rockwell X-30

National Aerospace PlaneX-30National Aerospace Plane (NASP)
During the 1980s, the attention of the Agency was centered on information processing and aircraft-related programs, including the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) or Hypersonic Research Program.
The NASP concept is thought to have been derived from the "Copper Canyon" project of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), from 1982 to 1985.

Biological Technologies Office (DARPA)

Biological Technologies OfficeBiological Technologies Office (BTO)DARPA BTO
The Biological Technologies Office (BTO) is one of the seven technical offices within DARPA, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense that is responsible for the development of advanced technology for national security.

Jack Ruina

Dr. Jack Ruina
He was succeeded by Jack Ruina who served until 1963.
Ruina received his PhD degree in electrical engineering from the New York University Tandon School of Engineering (then Poytechnic Institute of Brooklyn), He then served in positions at the U.S. Department of Defense, including deputy for research to the assistant secretary of research and engineering of the U.S. Air Force, Assistant Director of Defense Research and Engineering for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Director of the Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Microsystems Technology Office

Microsystems Technology Office (MTO)Microelectronics Technology Office
The Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) is one of seven current organizational divisions of DARPA, an agency responsible for the development of new technology for the United States Armed Forces.

J. C. R. Licklider

J.C.R. LickliderJoseph Carl Robnett LickliderDr. J. C. R. Licklider
It was Ruina who hired J. C. R. Licklider as the first administrator of the Information Processing Techniques Office, which played a vital role in creation of ARPANET, the basis for the future Internet.
In October 1962, Licklider was appointed head of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at ARPA, the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, an appointment he kept through July 1964.

Strategic Defense Initiative

Star WarsStrategic Defense Initiative OrganizationSDI
Many of the successful programs were transitioned to the Services, such as the foundation technologies in automatic target recognition, space based sensing, propulsion, and materials that were transferred to the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), later known as the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO), now titled the Missile Defense Agency (MDA).
When initially faced with this problem, President Eisenhower asked ARPA to consider alternative concepts.

Adaptive Execution Office

Adaptive Execution Office (AEO)
The Adaptive Execution Office (AEO) was one of two new DARPA offices created in 2009 by director, Regina Dugan.

ASW Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel

ACTUV
The ASW Continuous Trail Unmanned Vessel (ACTUV) is a DARPA funded project launched in early 2010 to develop an anti-submarine drone (unmanned surface vehicle).

PARC (company)

Xerox PARCPARCPalo Alto Research Center
Some young computer scientists left the universities to startups and private research laboratories such as Xerox PARC.
PARC's West Coast location proved to be advantageous in the mid-1970s, when the lab was able to hire many employees of the nearby SRI Augmentation Research Center (ARC) as that facility's funding began falling, from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and U.S. Air Force (USAF).