DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNAsingle-stranded DNAssDNADNA strandstructure of DNAgenetic materialdouble-strandedNaked DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.wikipedia
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Virus

virusesviralvirion
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses.
While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles, or virions, consisting of: (i) the genetic material, long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an outside envelope of lipids.

Nucleotide

nucleotidesntdinucleotide
The two DNA strands are also known as polynucleotides as they are composed of simpler monomeric units called nucleotides.
They are the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Cytosine

CC'''ytosinecytosines
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
Cytosine ( C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

Guanine

GG'''uanineGG
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

Base pair

base pairsbpMbp
The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA.
They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.

Adenine

AA'''denineadenine nucleotides
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
It is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

Transcription (biology)

transcriptiontranscribedtranscriptional
RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription, where DNA bases are exchanged for their corresponding bases except in the case of thymine (T), which RNA substitutes for uracil (U).
Transcription is the first of several steps of DNA based gene expression (gene is a short part of DNA that encodes for a protein), in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

Organophosphate

organophosphatesphosphate esterorganophosphorous
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
Like most functional groups organophosphates occur in a diverse range of forms, with important examples including key biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and ATP, as well as many insecticides, herbicides, nerve agents and flame retardants.

Nucleic acid sequence

DNA sequencesnucleotide sequencegenetic information
It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes genetic information.
A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of base-pairs signified by a series of a set of five different letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
Within eukaryotic cells, DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes.
A chromosome is a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

Thymine

TT'''hymineT nucleobase
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

Genetic code

codoncodonsencoded
Under the genetic code, these RNA strands specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins in a process called translation.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.
If the sugar is a compound ribose, the polymer is RNA (ribonucleic acid); if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose, the polymer is DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription, where DNA bases are exchanged for their corresponding bases except in the case of thymine (T), which RNA substitutes for uracil (U). DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

Central dogma of molecular biology

central dogmacentral dogma of biologybiological information
Both strands of double-stranded DNA store the same biological information.
There are 3 major classes of such biopolymers: DNA and RNA (both nucleic acids), and protein.

Nucleobase

basesnucleobasesbase
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
The ability of nucleobases to form base pairs and to stack one upon another leads directly to long-chain helical structures such as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

Uracil

Uuracil nucleotidesU'''racil
RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription, where DNA bases are exchanged for their corresponding bases except in the case of thymine (T), which RNA substitutes for uracil (U).
In DNA, the uracil nucleobase is replaced by thymine.

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Nuclear DNA

nuclearnDNAnuclear genome
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.
Nuclear DNA (nDNA), or nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid, is the DNA contained within each cell nucleus of a eukaryotic organism.

Chloroplast DNA

plastomecpDNAchloroplast genome
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.
Chloroplasts have their own DNA, often abbreviated as cpDNA.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.
The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.

Chromatin

chromatin structuresex chromatinnuclear chromatin
Within eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins, such as histones, compact and organize DNA.
Chromatin is a complex of DNA and protein found in eukaryotic cells.

Histone

histoneshistone modificationhistone modifications
Within eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins, such as histones, compact and organize DNA.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

Chloroplast

chloroplastschloroplast stromaplastoglobuli
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.
Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, contain their own DNA, which is thought to be inherited from their ancestor—a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that was engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
Its molecular structure was first identified by Francis Crick and James Watson at the Cavendish Laboratory within the University of Cambridge in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, who was a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin.
In 1953, he co-authored with James Watson the academic paper proposing the double helix structure of the DNA molecule.