DNA profiling

DNA evidenceDNA fingerprintinggenetic fingerprintingDNA testingDNADNA analysisDNA profileDNA testDNA testsforensic genetics
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.wikipedia
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Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec JeffreysAlec John JeffreysAlec J. Jeffreys
In the United Kingdom, Geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys independently developed a DNA profiling process in beginning in late 1984 while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester.
Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.

University of Leicester

Leicester UniversityLeicesterUniversity College, Leicester
In the United Kingdom, Geneticist Sir Alec Jeffreys independently developed a DNA profiling process in beginning in late 1984 while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester.
The university is famous for the discovery of genetic fingerprinting and contributing to the discovery and identification of the remains of King Richard III.

Colin Pitchfork

Cracking the Killers' CodeEnderby murdersFootpath Murders
In the murder inquiry, led by Detective David Baker, the DNA contained within blood samples obtained voluntarily from around 5,000 local men who willingly assisted Leicestershire Constabulary with the investigation, resulted in the exoneration of Richard Buckland, an initial suspect who had confessed to one of the crimes, and the subsequent conviction of Colin Pitchfork on January 2, 1988.
He was the first person convicted of murder based on DNA fingerprinting evidence, and the first to be caught as a result of mass DNA screening.

Lalji Singh

In India DNA fingerprinting was started by Dr. VK Kashyap and Dr. Lalji Singh.
Lalji Singh FNA, FASc (5 July 1947 – 10 December 2017) was an Indian scientist who worked in the field of DNA fingerprinting technology in India, where he was popularly known as the "Father of Indian DNA fingerprinting".

Fingerprint

fingerprintingfingerprint recognitionfingerprint sensor
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
Another problem for the early twenty-first century is that during crime scene investigations, a decision has to be made at an early stage whether to attempt to retrieve fingerprints through the use of developers or whether to swab surfaces in an attempt to salvage material for DNA profiling.

Genealogy

genealogistgenealogicalfamily history
It is also used in parentage testing, to establish immigration eligibility, and in genealogical and medical research.
Detectives may perform genealogical research using DNA evidence to identify victims of homicides or perpetrators of crimes.

Forensic Science Service

British Forensic Science Service
The process, developed by Jeffreys in conjunction with Peter Gill and Dave Werrett of the Forensic Science Service (FSS), was first used forensically in the solving of the murder of two teenagers who had been raped and murdered in Narborough, Leicestershire in 1983 and 1986.
The organisation later pioneered the use of large scale DNA profiling for forensic identification and crime detection when it moved the facilities to Birmingham.

DNA paternity testing

paternity testpaternity testingDNA paternity test
It is also used in parentage testing, to establish immigration eligibility, and in genealogical and medical research.
DNA paternity testing is the use of DNA profiles to determine whether an individual is the biological parent of another individual.

Forensic science

forensicforensicsforensic scientist
DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime.
Forensic DNA analysis was first used in 1984.

Polymerase chain reaction

PCRPCR amplificationpolymerase chain reaction (PCR)
These early techniques have been supplanted by PCR-based assays.
Applications of the technique include DNA cloning for sequencing, gene cloning and manipulation, gene mutagenesis; construction of DNA-based phylogenies, or functional analysis of genes; diagnosis and monitoring of hereditary diseases; amplification of ancient DNA; analysis of genetic fingerprints for DNA profiling (for example, in forensic science and parentage testing); and detection of pathogens in nucleic acid tests for the diagnosis of infectious diseases.

Oligonucleotide

oligonucleotidesoligoantisense oligonucleotide
Two oligonucleotide DNA primers are used to hybridize to two corresponding nearby sites on opposite DNA strands in such a fashion that the normal enzymatic extension of the active terminal of each primer (that is, the 3’ end) leads toward the other primer.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.

Differential extraction

Differential extraction is a modified version of extraction in which DNA from two different types of cells can be separated from each other before being purified from the solution.
The most common application of this method is the extraction of DNA from vaginal epithelial cells and sperm cells from sexual assault cases in order to determine the DNA profiles of the victim and the perpetrator.

Microsatellite

short tandem repeatmicrosatellitesSTR
DNA profiling uses repetitive sequences that are highly variable, called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), in particular short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, and minisatellites.
Microsatellites are often referred to as short tandem repeats (STRs) by forensic geneticists and in genetic genealogy, or as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) by plant geneticists.

Amplified fragment length polymorphism

AFLPAFLPsAmplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms
Another technique, AFLP, or amplified fragment length polymorphism was also put into practice during the early 1990s.
AFLP-PCR or just AFLP is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering.

DNA database

national DNA databasedatabasesDNA databases
In North America, systems that amplify the CODIS 20 core loci are almost universal, whereas in the United Kingdom the DNA-17 17 loci system (which is compatible with The National DNA Database) is in use, and Australia uses 18 core markers.
A DNA database or DNA databank is a database of DNA profiles which can be used in the analysis of genetic diseases, genetic fingerprinting for criminology, or genetic genealogy.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
In technology, these sequence-specific nucleases are used in molecular cloning and DNA fingerprinting.

Variable number tandem repeat

VNTRVariable Number Tandem Repeatslength variation
DNA profiling uses repetitive sequences that are highly variable, called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), in particular short tandem repeats (STRs), also known as microsatellites, and minisatellites.
Their analysis is useful in genetics and biology research, forensics, and DNA fingerprinting.

Second Generation Multiplex Plus

SGM+
Since 1998, the DNA profiling system supported by The National DNA Database in the UK is the SGM+ DNA profiling system that includes 10 STR regions and a sex-indicating test.
Second Generation Multiplex Plus (SGM Plus), is a DNA profiling system developed by Applied Biosystems.

Restriction enzyme

restriction enzymesrestriction endonucleaserestriction endonucleases
DNA is collected from cells and cut into small pieces using a restriction enzyme (a restriction digest).
The different lengths of DNA generated by restriction digest also produce a specific pattern of bands after gel electrophoresis, and can be used for DNA fingerprinting.

STR analysis

Short Tandem RepeatShort Tandem Repeat AnalysisSTR
The true power of STR analysis is in its statistical power of discrimination.
STR analysis is a tool in forensic analysis that evaluates specific STR regions found on nuclear DNA.

Restriction fragment length polymorphism

RFLPRestriction Fragment Length PolymorphismsRFLP mapping
Methods like restriction fragment length polymorphism or RFLP Restriction fragment length polymorphism, which was the first technique used for DNA analysis in forensic science, required high molecular weight DNA in the sample in order to get reliable data.
Although now largely obsolete due to the emergence of inexpensive DNA sequencing technologies, RFLP analysis was the first DNA profiling technique inexpensive enough to see widespread application.

Murder of Lynette White

Lynette WhiteCardiff ThreeLynette Deborah White
Familial DNA database searching was first used in an investigation leading to the conviction of Jeffrey Gafoor of the murder of Lynette White in the United Kingdom on 4 July 2003.
In January 2002, new DNA technology enabled forensic scientists to obtain a reliable crime scene DNA profile.

Probabilistic genotyping

Probabilistic genotyping uses complex computer software to run through thousands of mathematical computations in order to produce statistical likelihoods of individual genotypes found in a mixture.
Probabilistic genotyping is the use of statistical methods and mathematical algorithms in DNA Profiling.

Prosecutor's fallacy

matches" someone
Another spurious statistical argument is based on the false assumption that a 1 in 5 million probability of a match automatically translates into a 1 in 5 million probability of innocence and is known as the prosecutor's fallacy.
In another scenario, a crime-scene DNA sample is compared against a database of 20,000 men.

Gel electrophoresis

gelelectrophoresiselectrophoresis gel
The fragments are then separated on the basis of size using gel electrophoresis.