DR-DOS

DR DOSDR DOS 6.0DR-DOS 7.02Novell DOSNovell DOS 7OpenDOSDR DOS 5.0PalmDOSOpenDOS 7.01Caldera UK
DR-DOS (DR DOS, without hyphen up to and including version 6.0) is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers.wikipedia
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DOS

COM1AUX:LPT1
DR-DOS (DR DOS, without hyphen up to and including version 6.0) is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers.
Later compatible systems from other manufacturers are DR DOS (1988), ROM-DOS (1989), PTS-DOS (1993), and FreeDOS (1998).

CP/M-86

Personal CP/M-86CP/M-86 1.1S5-DOS
It was originally developed by Gary A. Kildall's Digital Research and derived from Concurrent PC DOS 6.0, which was an advanced successor of CP/M-86.
The DOS Plus, FlexOS, and DR DOS families of operating systems started as derivations of Concurrent DOS as well.

Digital Research

DRDigital Research, Inc.Digital Initiatives
It was originally developed by Gary A. Kildall's Digital Research and derived from Concurrent PC DOS 6.0, which was an advanced successor of CP/M-86. In July 1992, Digital Research Japan released DR DOS 6.0/V, a Japanese DOS/V compatible version of DR DOS 6.0. Novell DOS was Novell Corporation's name for DR DOS during the period when Novell sold DR DOS, after the acquisition of Digital Research in 1991.
Digital Research, Inc. (DR or DRI) was a company created by Gary Kildall to market and develop his CP/M operating system and related 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit systems like MP/M, Concurrent DOS, FlexOS, Multiuser DOS, DOS Plus, DR DOS and GEM.

BatteryMAX (idle detection)

$IDLE$BatteryMAXDynamic Idle Detection
DR DOS 5.0 also introduced the patented BatteryMAX power management system, bundled disk-caching software (DRCACHE), a remote file transfer tool (FILELINK), a cursor shape configuration utility (CURSOR), and offered a vastly improved memory management system (MemoryMAX). As well as a ROM-executing kernel, PalmDOS had palmtop-type support for features such as PCMCIA PC Cards (with DPMS support), power management (BatteryMAX and the $IDLE$ device driver with its patented dynamic idle detection by Gross and John P. Constant), MINIMAX task switcher support for PIM (Personal Information Modules) applications stored and executed from ROM via XIP (Execute-In-Place), etc.
As such, it was also an integral part of Novell's PalmDOS 1.0 operating system tailored for early palmtops in 1992.

DOS/V

$FONT.SYS
In July 1992, Digital Research Japan released DR DOS 6.0/V, a Japanese DOS/V compatible version of DR DOS 6.0.
Digital Research released a Japanese DOS/V compatible version of DR DOS 6.0 in 1992.

IBMBIO.COM

DOS BIOSDOS-BIOSDRBIOS.SYS
DR DOS 3.31 reported itself as "IBM PC DOS 3.31", while the internal BDOS (Basic Disk Operating System) kernel version was reported as 6.0, single-user nature, reflecting its origin as derivative of Concurrent DOS 6.0 with the multitasking and multiuser capabilities as well as CP/M API support stripped out and the XIOS replaced by an IBM-compatible DOS-BIOS. The system files were named DRBIOS.SYS (for the DOS-BIOS) and DRBDOS.SYS (for the BDOS kernel), the disk OEM label used was "DIGITAL␠".
The file is part of IBM's PC DOS (all versions) as well as of DR DOS 5.0 and higher (with the exception of DR-DOS 7.06).

AARD code

Aaron Reynolds
This check came to be known as the AARD code.
The AARD code was a segment of code in a beta release of Microsoft Windows 3.1 that would determine whether Windows was running on MS-DOS or PC DOS, rather than a competing workalike such as DR-DOS, and would result in a cryptic error message in the latter case.

Disk compression

SuperStorMultimedia StackerDoubleDisk
This bundled in SuperStor on-the-fly disk compression, to maximize available hard disk space, and file deletion tracking and undelete functionality by Roger A. Gross.

IBMDOS.COM

DRBDOS.SYSBDOS
The system files were named DRBIOS.SYS (for the DOS-BIOS) and DRBDOS.SYS (for the BDOS kernel), the disk OEM label used was "DIGITAL␠".
The file exists in PC DOS 1.0 to 7.10 and DR DOS 5.0 and higher (except for DR-DOS 7.06), with MS-DOS using MSDOS.SYS (from version 1.10 to 6.22) for the same purpose.

ViewMAX

Caldera ViewViewMAX 23
(Version 4 was skipped to avoid being associated with the relatively unpopular MS-DOS 4.0.) This introduced ViewMAX, a GEM-based GUI file management shell. Via the task-switcher API, graphical user interfaces such as ViewMAX or PC/GEOS could register as the task manager menu and thereby replace the TASKMAX text mode menu, so that users could switch between tasks from within a GUI. (This was part of a massive and ultimately disastrous spending spree for Novell: they bought WordPerfect Corporation at about the same time, some of Borland's products, and invested heavily in Unix as well.) The planned "DR DOS 7.0", internally named "Panther", intended to trump Microsoft's troubled MS-DOS 6.0, was repeatedly delayed, while Novell was working on an optionally loadable Unix-like multi-user security extension (with, if loaded, file commands like ATTRIB, BACKUP, DELPURGE, MOVE, TOUCH, TREE, UNDELETE, XCOPY, XDEL and XDIR supporting an otherwise disabled /U:name command line option to select specific users or groups, compatible with Multiuser DOS) and two new graphical user interfaces (ViewMAX 3, a derivative of GEM, and "Star Trek", a true port of Apple's System 7.1 to run under the new DR DOS multitasker named "Vladivar").
ViewMAX is a CUA-compliant file manager supplied with DR DOS versions 5.0 and 6.0.

Upper memory area

upper memoryupper memory blockUpper Memory Blocks
DR DOS 5.0 was the first DOS to integrate such functionality into the base OS (loading device drivers into upper memory blocks was already possible using third-party software like QEMM).
This occurred with the release of DR DOS 5.0 in 1990.

Real mode

real-moderealmode1 MB addressable space
The kernel and data structures such as disk buffers could be relocated in the High Memory Area (HMA), the first 64 KB of extended memory which are accessible in real mode.
The PC BIOS which IBM introduced operates in real mode, as do the DOS operating systems (MS-DOS, DR-DOS, etc.).

MS-DOS

DOSMS-DOS 5.0MS-DOS 6.0
This became Microsoft MS-DOS and IBM PC DOS.
(Competitors released compatible DOS systems such as DR DOS and PTS-DOS that could also run DOS applications.)

Conventional memory

640 KB barrierconventionallow memory
This freed up the equivalent amount of critical "base" or conventional memory, the first 640 KB of the PC's RAM – the area in which all DOS applications run.
Memory managers on 386-based systems (such as QEMM or MEMMAX (+V) in DR-DOS) could achieve the same effect, adding conventional memory at 640 KB and moving the barrier to 704 KB (up to segment B000, the start of MDA/HGC) or 736 KB (up to segment B800, the start of the CGA).

Novell

Novell, Inc.Novell Inc.PGSoft
Novell DOS was Novell Corporation's name for DR DOS during the period when Novell sold DR DOS, after the acquisition of Digital Research in 1991.
NetWare used DR DOS as a boot loader and maintenance platform, and Novell intended to extend its desktop presence by integrating networking into DR DOS and providing an alternative to Microsoft's Windows.

Multiuser DOS

Concurrent DOSREAL/32Concurrent DOS 386
It was originally developed by Gary A. Kildall's Digital Research and derived from Concurrent PC DOS 6.0, which was an advanced successor of CP/M-86. DR DOS 3.31 reported itself as "IBM PC DOS 3.31", while the internal BDOS (Basic Disk Operating System) kernel version was reported as 6.0, single-user nature, reflecting its origin as derivative of Concurrent DOS 6.0 with the multitasking and multiuser capabilities as well as CP/M API support stripped out and the XIOS replaced by an IBM-compatible DOS-BIOS.
Concurrent DOS 6.0 represented also the starting point for the DR DOS family, which was carved out of it.

GEOS (16-bit operating system)

PC/GEOSGeoWorksGEOS
Via the task-switcher API, graphical user interfaces such as ViewMAX or PC/GEOS could register as the task manager menu and thereby replace the TASKMAX text mode menu, so that users could switch between tasks from within a GUI.
Under DR DOS 6.0, if TASKMAX was loaded before PC/GEOS, PC/GEOS registered as graphical menu system for TASKMAX.

DOS Protected Mode Services

DPMSCLOAKINGHelix Cloaking
As well as a ROM-executing kernel, PalmDOS had palmtop-type support for features such as PCMCIA PC Cards (with DPMS support), power management (BatteryMAX and the $IDLE$ device driver with its patented dynamic idle detection by Gross and John P. Constant), MINIMAX task switcher support for PIM (Personal Information Modules) applications stored and executed from ROM via XIP (Execute-In-Place), etc.
DPMS saw its debut in beta versions of DR DOS "Panther" in October 1992, which, besides others, came with DPMS-enabled versions of the Super PC-Kwik disk cache, Addstor's SuperStor disk compression, and DEBUG as "stealth" protected mode system debugger.

Windows 95

95Microsoft Windows 95Windows 95 OSR2
With beta versions of Microsoft's "Chicago" (what would later become Windows 95) in sight, Novell wound down further development on Novell DOS 7 in September 1994 and stopped maintenance in January 1996 after more than 15 updates.
MS-DOS 7.0 was in development at that time under the code name "Jaguar" and could optionally run on top of a Windows 3.1-based 32-bit protected-mode kernel called "Cougar" in order to better compete with DR-DOS.

Touch (command)

touch
(This was part of a massive and ultimately disastrous spending spree for Novell: they bought WordPerfect Corporation at about the same time, some of Borland's products, and invested heavily in Unix as well.) The planned "DR DOS 7.0", internally named "Panther", intended to trump Microsoft's troubled MS-DOS 6.0, was repeatedly delayed, while Novell was working on an optionally loadable Unix-like multi-user security extension (with, if loaded, file commands like ATTRIB, BACKUP, DELPURGE, MOVE, TOUCH, TREE, UNDELETE, XCOPY, XDEL and XDIR supporting an otherwise disabled /U:name command line option to select specific users or groups, compatible with Multiuser DOS) and two new graphical user interfaces (ViewMAX 3, a derivative of GEM, and "Star Trek", a true port of Apple's System 7.1 to run under the new DR DOS multitasker named "Vladivar").
It is included in Unix and Unix-like operating systems, TSC's FLEX, Digital Research/Novell DR DOS, the AROS shell, the Microware OS-9 shell, and ReactOS.

Star Trek project

Star TrekStarTrekDR DOS "StarTrek
(This was part of a massive and ultimately disastrous spending spree for Novell: they bought WordPerfect Corporation at about the same time, some of Borland's products, and invested heavily in Unix as well.) The planned "DR DOS 7.0", internally named "Panther", intended to trump Microsoft's troubled MS-DOS 6.0, was repeatedly delayed, while Novell was working on an optionally loadable Unix-like multi-user security extension (with, if loaded, file commands like ATTRIB, BACKUP, DELPURGE, MOVE, TOUCH, TREE, UNDELETE, XCOPY, XDEL and XDIR supporting an otherwise disabled /U:name command line option to select specific users or groups, compatible with Multiuser DOS) and two new graphical user interfaces (ViewMAX 3, a derivative of GEM, and "Star Trek", a true port of Apple's System 7.1 to run under the new DR DOS multitasker named "Vladivar").
Star Trek was designed as a hybrid of Apple's Macintosh operating system, made to run as an operating system GUI shell application upon Novell's next in-development version of the DR DOS operating system.

High memory area

HMAHMA, or High Memory Area
The kernel and data structures such as disk buffers could be relocated in the High Memory Area (HMA), the first 64 KB of extended memory which are accessible in real mode.
Starting in 1990 with DR DOS 5.0 (via CONFIG.SYS HIDOS=ON ) and since 1991 with MS-DOS 5.0 (via DOS=HIGH ), parts of the operating system could be loaded into the HMA as well, freeing up to 46 KB of conventional memory.

EMM386

Global EMM Import SpecificationEMM386.EXEJEMM386
However, if EMM386 was loaded with the option /MULTI, EMM386 would load a natively 32-bit 386 Protected Mode operating system core providing API support for pre-emptive multitasking, multi-threading, hardware virtualization and domain management of virtual DOS machines.
The name EMM386 was used for the expanded memory managers of Microsoft's MS-DOS, IBM's PC DOS and Digital Research's DR-DOS, which created expanded memory using extended memory on Intel 80386 CPUs.

MS-DOS 4.0 (multitasking)

MS-DOS 4.0MS-DOSMS-DOS 4.1 (multitasking)
(Version 4 was skipped to avoid being associated with the relatively unpopular MS-DOS 4.0.) This introduced ViewMAX, a GEM-based GUI file management shell.

Caldera (company)

CalderaCaldera, Inc.Bryan Wayne Sparks
Novell sold the product line off to Caldera on 23 July 1996, after it approached Novell looking for a DOS operating system to bundle with its OpenLinux distribution,
Looking for a DOS operating system to bundle with their OpenLinux distribution, Caldera, backed up by The Canopy Group as their largest investor, acquired Novell DOS 7 and other Digital Research assets from Novell on 23 July 1996.