A report on DSM-5

2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

- DSM-5

82 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Mental disorder

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Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) redefined mental disorders in the DSM-5 as "a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning."

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

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Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Natterer, who had schizophrenia
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication.
Deaths per million persons due to schizophrenia in 2012.
The term "schizophrenia" was coined by Eugen Bleuler.
A molecule of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic developed in the 1950s
John Nash, an American mathematician and joint recipient of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, who had schizophrenia. His life was the subject of the 1998 book, A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar.

To diagnose someone with schizophrenia, doctors are supposed to confirm that symptoms and functional impairment are present for six months (DSM-5) or one month (ICD-11).

People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing in multiple contexts, and otherwise age-inappropriate.

Neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by excessive amounts of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are pervasive, impairing in multiple contexts, and otherwise age-inappropriate.

People with ADHD may struggle more than others to focus on tasks such as schoolwork, but can maintain an unusually intense level of attention for tasks they find rewarding or interesting
The left prefrontal cortex, shown here in blue, is often affected in ADHD.
Percent of people 4–17 ever diagnosed in the US as of 2011
Timeline of ADHD diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and treatment

According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and its text revision (DSM-5-TR), symptoms must be present for six months or more to a degree that is much greater than others of the same age.

Repetitively stacking or lining up objects is associated with autism spectrum disorder.

Autism spectrum

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Range of neurodevelopmental conditions generally characterized by difficulties in social interactions and communication, repetitive behaviors, intense interests, and unusual responses to sensory stimuli.

Range of neurodevelopmental conditions generally characterized by difficulties in social interactions and communication, repetitive behaviors, intense interests, and unusual responses to sensory stimuli.

Repetitively stacking or lining up objects is associated with autism spectrum disorder.
A young autistic boy who has arranged his toys in a row
Hundreds of different genes are implicated in susceptibility to developing autism, most of which alter the brain structure in a similar way
Process for screening and diagnosing ASD; M-CHAT is Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers; (+) is positive test result; (-) is negative test result
An autistic three-year-old points to fish in an aquarium, as part of an experiment on the effect of intensive shared-attention training on language development.
Reports of autism cases per 1,000 children rose considerably in the US from 1996 to 2007. It is unknown how much growth came from changes in rates of autism.
Portrait of Victor of Aveyron, a feral child caught in 1798 who displayed possible symptoms of autism
Leo Kanner introduced the label early infantile autism in 1943.
Donna Williams, one of several memoirists who have introduced the general public to a more nuanced, emic portrayal of life on the spectrum

Clinicians use the ICD as a reference for diagnosis and reporting but researchers, particularly in the US, continue to use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5-TR from 2022, DSM-5 from 2013, or their predecessors) as some material is not included in the ICD (the ICD is broader in scope, covering general as well as mental health).

Frequent and excessive hand washing occurs in some people with OCD.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

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Mental and behavioral disorder in which an individual has intrusive thoughts and/or feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly to the extent where it induces distress or impairs general function.

Mental and behavioral disorder in which an individual has intrusive thoughts and/or feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly to the extent where it induces distress or impairs general function.

Frequent and excessive hand washing occurs in some people with OCD.
People with OCD may face intrusive thoughts, such as thoughts about the devil (shown is a painted interpretation of Hell).
Skin-picking disorder
Some parts of the brain showing abnormal activity in OCD
One exposure and ritual prevention activity would be to check the lock only once and then leave.
A blister pack of clomipramine under the brand name Anafranil
This ribbon represents trichotillomania and other body-focused repetitive behaviors. Concept for the ribbon was started by Jenne Schrader. Colors were voted on by the Trichotillomania Facebook community, and made official by the Trichotillomania Learning Center in August 2013.
Age-standardized disability-adjusted life year estimated rates for obsessive-compulsive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
no data
<45
45–52.5
52.5–60
60–67.5
67.5–75
75–82.5
82.5–90
90–97.5
97.5–105
105–112.5
112.5–120
>120

The DSM-5 identifies a continuum for the level of insight in OCD, ranging from good insight (the least severe) to no insight (the most severe).

Paraphilia

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Experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.

Experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals.

The DSM-5 has specific listings for eight paraphilic disorders.

Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904),
namesake of Tourette syndrome

Tourette syndrome

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Common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence.

Common neurodevelopmental disorder that begins in childhood or adolescence.

Georges Gilles de la Tourette (1857–1904),
namesake of Tourette syndrome
André Malraux (center) was a French Minister of Culture, author and adventurer who may have had Tourette syndrome.
The basal ganglia and thalamus are implicated in Tourette syndrome.
Clonidine is one of the medications typically tried first when medication is needed for Tourette's. It is available as a pill or a transdermal (skin) patch.
Tim Howard, described in 2019 by a staff writer for the Los Angeles Times as the "greatest goalkeeper in U.S. soccer history", attributes his success in the sport to his Tourette's.
Jean-Martin Charcot was a French neurologist and professor who named Tourette syndrome for his intern, Georges Gilles de la Tourette. In A Clinical Lesson at the Salpêtrière (1887), André Brouillet portrays a medical lecture by Charcot (the central standing figure) and shows de la Tourette in the audience (seated in the first row, wearing an apron).
Samuel Johnson c. undefined 1772. Johnson is likely to have had Tourette syndrome.

In the fifth version of the DSM (DSM-5), published in 2013, Tourette syndrome is classified as a motor disorder (a disorder of the nervous system that causes abnormal and involuntary movements).

A sign at a trans rights rally: "Gender is like that old jumper from my cousin: It was given to me and it doesn't fit."

Gender dysphoria

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Distress a person experiences due to a mismatch between their gender identitytheir personal sense of their own genderand their sex assigned at birth.

Distress a person experiences due to a mismatch between their gender identitytheir personal sense of their own genderand their sex assigned at birth.

A sign at a trans rights rally: "Gender is like that old jumper from my cousin: It was given to me and it doesn't fit."
In 1990, Virginia Prince ended an article wishing her readers "gender euphoria."

The diagnostic label gender identity disorder (GID) was used until 2013 with the release of the diagnostic manual DSM-5.

Restricted interests or repetitive behaviors, such as this boy's interest in a toy model of a molecule, may be features of Asperger's.

Asperger syndrome

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The name of a neurodevelopmental disorder no longer recognised as a diagnosis in itself, having been merged into autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

The name of a neurodevelopmental disorder no longer recognised as a diagnosis in itself, having been merged into autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Restricted interests or repetitive behaviors, such as this boy's interest in a toy model of a molecule, may be features of Asperger's.
People with Asperger syndrome often display restricted or specialized interests, such as this boy's interest in stacking cans.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides some evidence for mirror neuron theory.
Students and families walk to support Autism Awareness Month.

In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), published in May 2013, Asperger syndrome, as a separate diagnosis, was eliminated and folded into autism spectrum disorder.

A cartoon of a patient with body dysmorphia looking in a mirror, seeing a distorted image of himself

Body dysmorphic disorder

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Mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and therefore warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

Mental disorder characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and therefore warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

A cartoon of a patient with body dysmorphia looking in a mirror, seeing a distorted image of himself
One of the symptoms of with body dysmorphic disorder is body checking, which can involve individuals measuring themselves.

BDD is classified as a somatoform disorder, and the DSM-5 categorizes BDD in the obsessive–compulsive spectrum, and distinguishes it from anorexia nervosa.