Dactylic hexameter

hexameterhexametersdactylic hexametersepic meterGreek hexametershexameter poetryhexametricDactylDactylic [musichexametric verses
Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.wikipedia
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Metre (poetry)

metremeterprosody
Dactylic hexameter (also known as "heroic hexameter" and "the meter of epic") is a form of meter or rhythmic scheme in poetry.
In the dactylic hexameters of Classical Latin and Classical Greek, for example, each of the six feet making up the line was either a dactyl (long-short-short) or a spondee (long-long): a "long syllable" was literally one that took longer to pronounce than a short syllable: specifically, a syllable consisting of a long vowel or diphthong or followed by two consonants.

Iliad

The IliadIlliadIlias
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.
The Iliad (, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

Aeneid

The AeneidÆneidAEneis
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.
It comprises 9,896 lines in dactylic hexameter.

Ovid

Publius Ovidius NasoOvidianOvidius
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses. Later Republican writers, such as Lucretius, Catullus and even Cicero, wrote hexameter compositions, and it was at this time that many of the principles of Latin hexameter were firmly established, and followed by later writers such as Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, and Juvenal.
The first major Roman poet to begin his career during the reign of Augustus, Ovid is today best known for the Metamorphoses, a 15-book continuous mythological narrative written in the meter of epic, and for works in elegiac couplets such as Ars Amatoria ("The Art of Love") and Fasti.

Odyssey

The OdysseyHomer's OdysseyHomer's ''Odyssey
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.
The Odyssey was written in a poetic dialect of Greek—a literary amalgam of Aeolic Greek, Ionic Greek, and other Ancient Greek dialects—and comprises 12,110 lines of dactylic hexameter.

Metamorphoses

Ovid's MetamorphosesOvid's ''MetamorphosesThe Metamorphoses
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.
The poem is generally considered to meet the criteria for an epic; it is considerably long, relating over 250 narratives across fifteen books; it is composed in dactylic hexameter, the meter of both the ancient Iliad and Odyssey, and the more contemporary epic Aeneid; and it treats the high literary subject of myth.

Elegiac

elegiacselegaicelegiac meter
Hexameters also form part of elegiac poetry in both languages, alternating with dactylic pentameters.
An elegiac couplet consists of one line of poetry in dactylic hexameter followed by a line in dactylic pentameter.

Epic poetry

epic poemepicepics
It is traditionally associated with the quantitative meter of classical epic poetry in both Greek and Latin and was consequently considered to be the grand style of Western classical poetry.
Classical epic poetry employs a meter called dactylic hexameter and recounts a journey, either physical (as typified by Odysseus in the Odyssey) or mental (as typified by Achilles in the Iliad) or both.

Virgil

VergilPublius Vergilius MaroVirgilian
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses. Later Republican writers, such as Lucretius, Catullus and even Cicero, wrote hexameter compositions, and it was at this time that many of the principles of Latin hexameter were firmly established, and followed by later writers such as Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, and Juvenal.
The epic poem consists of 12 books in dactylic hexameter verse which describe the journey of Aeneas, a warrior fleeing the sack of Troy, to Italy, his battle with the Italian prince Turnus, and the foundation of a city from which Rome would emerge.

Homer

HomericHomeric epicsHomeric poems
Some premier examples of its use are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, Virgil's Aeneid, and Ovid's Metamorphoses.
The Homeric poems were composed in unrhymed dactylic hexameter; ancient Greek metre was quantity rather than stress-based.

Dactylic pentameter

hemiepespentameterdactylic
Hexameters also form part of elegiac poetry in both languages, alternating with dactylic pentameters.
In classical literature, it is usually found in the second line of the classical Latin or Greek elegiac couplet, following a dactylic hexameter.

Satires (Juvenal)

JuvenalSatiresSatires of Juvenal
Later Republican writers, such as Lucretius, Catullus and even Cicero, wrote hexameter compositions, and it was at this time that many of the principles of Latin hexameter were firmly established, and followed by later writers such as Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, and Juvenal.
Juvenal is credited with sixteen known poems divided among five books; all are in the Roman genre of satire, which, at its most basic in the time of the author, comprised a wide-ranging discussion of society and social mores in dactylic hexameter.

Golden line

history
A treatise on poetry by Diomedes Grammaticus is a good example, as this work (among other things) categorizes dactylic hexameter verses in ways that were later interpreted under the golden line rubric.
The golden line is a type of Latin dactylic hexameter frequently mentioned in Latin classrooms in English speaking countries and in contemporary scholarship written in English.

Ancient Greek dialects

Greek dialectsancient Greek dialectdialect
Homer also altered the forms of words to allow them to fit the hexameter, typically by using a dialectal form: ptolis is an epic form used instead of the Attic polis as necessary for the meter.
Homeric Greek is used in the first epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey, and the Homeric Hymns, traditionally attributed to Homer and written in dactylic hexameter.

Juvenal

Decimus Junius JuvenalisDecimus Iunius IuvenalisJuvenalian
Juvenal, for example, was fond of occasionally creating verses that placed a sense break between the fourth and fifth foot (instead of in the usual caesura positions), but this technique—known as the bucolic diaeresis—did not catch on with other poets.
Juvenal wrote at least 16 poems in the verse form dactylic hexameter.

Spondee

spondaicspondees
In strict dactylic hexameter, each foot would be a dactyl (a long and two short syllables), but classical meter allows for the substitution of a spondee (two long syllables) in place of a dactyl in most positions.
For example, the epics of Homer and Vergil are written in dactylic hexameter.

Dactyl (poetry)

dactyldactylicdactyls
In strict dactylic hexameter, each foot would be a dactyl (a long and two short syllables), but classical meter allows for the substitution of a spondee (two long syllables) in place of a dactyl in most positions.
An example of dactylic meter is the first line of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem Evangeline, which is in dactylic hexameter:

Ennius

Quintus EnniusEnnian
The earliest example of hexameter in Latin poetry is the Annales of Ennius, which established it as the standard for later Latin epics.
It was the first Latin poem to adopt the dactylic hexameter metre used in Greek epic and didactic poetry, leading it to become the standard metre for these genres in Latin poetry.

Lucretius

Titus Lucretius CarusLucretianLucreti
Later Republican writers, such as Lucretius, Catullus and even Cicero, wrote hexameter compositions, and it was at this time that many of the principles of Latin hexameter were firmly established, and followed by later writers such as Virgil, Ovid, Lucan, and Juvenal.
The poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six untitled books, and explores Epicurean physics through richly poetic language and metaphors.

Evangeline

Evangeline, A Tale of Acadieepic poem of the same nameEvangeline!
Perhaps the most famous is Longfellow's "Evangeline", whose first line is as follows:
Longfellow used dactylic hexameter, imitating Greek and Latin classics.

The Seasons (poem)

The SeasonsMetaiMetai" (The Seasons)
The Seasons (Metai) by Kristijonas Donelaitis is a famous Lithuanian poem in quantitative dactylic hexameters.
It is in quantitative dactylic hexameters as often used for Latin and Ancient Greek poetry.

Der Messias (Klopstock)

Der MessiasThe MessiahDer Messias'' (Klopstock)
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock's epic Der Messias popularized accentual dactylic hexameter in German.
The poem consists of 19,458 dactylic hexameters, as compared with the 15,693 of Homer's Iliad.

Diomedes Grammaticus

Diomedes
A treatise on poetry by Diomedes Grammaticus is a good example, as this work (among other things) categorizes dactylic hexameter verses in ways that were later interpreted under the golden line rubric.
This book contains one of the most complete lists of types of dactylic hexameters in antiquity, including the teres versus, which may (or may not) be the so-called "golden line."

Syllable weight

heavy syllableheavylongum
(Note that — = a long syllable, ⏑ = a short syllable, ⏕ = either one long or two shorts, and X = anceps syllable.)
In Ancient Greek hexameter poetry and Latin literature, lines followed certain metrical patterns, such as based on arrangements of heavy and light syllables.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
It is traditionally associated with the quantitative meter of classical epic poetry in both Greek and Latin and was consequently considered to be the grand style of Western classical poetry.