A report on Dalit Buddhist movement

The Buddhist Movement for Dalits was begun by Ambedkar when he converted with his followers in 1956 in Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur
Ambedkar delivering a speech to a rally at Yeola, Nashik, on 13 October 1935
Ambedkar delivering speech during conversion, Nagpur, 14 October 1956
Statue of B.R.Ambedkar inside Ambedkar Park, Lucknow
Flag symbolises Dalit movement in India.
Deekshabhoomi Stupa in Nagpur where Ambedkar converted to Buddhism.

Religious as well as a socio-political movement among Dalits in India which was started by B. R. Ambedkar.

- Dalit Buddhist movement
The Buddhist Movement for Dalits was begun by Ambedkar when he converted with his followers in 1956 in Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur

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Nag River

Nagpur

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Third largest city and the winter capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Third largest city and the winter capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Nag River
statue of Bakht Buland Shah in Nagpur
Main entrance of the Nagardhan Fort, commissioned by Raghuji Bhonsle of the Bhonsale dynasty of the Maratha Empire in the 18th century
Map of Nagpur district with major towns and rivers
Central Provinces and Berar, 1903. Princely states are shown in yellow.
Vidhan Bhavan (State Legislative Assembly) Nagpur
NIT- Nagpur Improvement Trust
Government Medical College and Hospital, Nagpur
Sitabuldi fort is home to Indian Army's 118th infantry battalion.
Sitabuldi Market, one of the busiest commercial areas of Nagpur
Nagpur branch of the Reserve Bank of India
TCS Campus in MIHAN Nagpur
Persistent Campus at IT Park, Parsodi
College of Agriculture, Nagpur
VNIT Nagpur
RSTM Nagpur University Campus
Deeksha Bhoomi
Shri Ganesh
Dargah Baba Tajuddin
Seminary Hill of Nagpur
Kadhi-Traditional dish of Nagpur
Schematic Tourist Map of Nagpur city
scenic beauty of Tadoba Andhari tiger reserve
scenic beauty of Pench Tiger reserve
Nagpur Central Museum
A view at NPL starting ceremony
Nagpur Junction Railway Station building
Nagpur Metro
Green Bus in Nagpur
Nagpur International Airport has the busiest air traffic control room in India.

In addition, the city derives unique importance from being an important location for the Dalit Buddhist movement and the headquarters for the Hindu organization RSS.

Ambedkar in the 1950s

B. R. Ambedkar

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Ambedkar in the 1950s
Ambedkar as a student
Ambedkar (In center line, first from right) with his professors and friends from the London School of Economics (1916–17)
Ambedkar as a barrister in 1922
M.R. Jayakar, Tej Bahadur Sapru and Ambedkar at Yerwada jail, in Poona, on 24 September 1932, the day the Poona Pact was signed
Ambedkar with his family members at Rajgraha in February 1934. From left – Yashwant (son), Ambedkar, Ramabai (wife), Laxmibai (wife of his elder brother, Balaram), Mukund (nephew) and Ambedkar's favourite dog, Tobby
Ambedkar, chairman of the Drafting Committee, presenting the final draft of the Indian Constitution to Rajendra Prasad, president of the Constituent Assembly, on 25 November 1949.
Ambedkar with wife Savita in 1948
Ambedkar delivering a speech during a mass conversion ceremony.
Mahaparinirvana of B. R. Ambedkar
People paying tribute at the central statue of Ambedkar in Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University in Aurangabad.
1990 1 Rupee commemorative coin of India dedicated to B.R. Ambedkar

Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956) was an Indian jurist, economist, social reformer and political leader who headed the committee drafting the Constitution of India from the Constituent Assembly debates, served as Law and Justice minister in the first cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru, and inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement after renouncing Hinduism.

A Navayana Buddhist shrine with Ambedkar's portrait and The Buddha and His Dhamma book. The photograph is on the event of the 50th Dhammachakra Pravartan Day.

Navayana

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Also called Neo-Buddhism and Ambedkarite Buddhism.

Also called Neo-Buddhism and Ambedkarite Buddhism.

A Navayana Buddhist shrine with Ambedkar's portrait and The Buddha and His Dhamma book. The photograph is on the event of the 50th Dhammachakra Pravartan Day.
Young Indian samanera (novice Buddhist monk) in an Indian vihara. There are statues of the Buddha and bodhisattva B.R. Ambedkar.
Buddhist flag of Navayana Buddhists
Ambedkar delivering a speech during mass conversion in Nagpur, 14 October 1956.
Map showing major Buddhist divisions, Navayana in pink.
District wise Buddhist population percentage, India census 2011. India's West-centre area Maharashtra shows Navayana Marathi Buddhist population

In the Dalit Buddhist movement of India, Navayana is considered a new branch of Buddhism, different from the traditionally recognized branches of Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana – considered to be foundational in the Buddhist traditions.

Deekshabhoomi monument, located in Nagpur, Maharashtra, where B. R. Ambedkar converted to Buddhism in 1956, is the largest stupa in Asia.

Marathi Buddhists

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Marathi Buddhists (Marāṭhī Baud'dha) are Buddhists of Marathi ethnic and linguistic identity.

Marathi Buddhists (Marāṭhī Baud'dha) are Buddhists of Marathi ethnic and linguistic identity.

Deekshabhoomi monument, located in Nagpur, Maharashtra, where B. R. Ambedkar converted to Buddhism in 1956, is the largest stupa in Asia.
Ambedkar delivering speech during conversion, Nagpur, 14 October 1956
District wise Buddhist population percentage, India census 2011. India's West-centre area, Maharashtra shows Marathi Buddhist population.
Marathi Buddhists are celebrating 62nd Dhammachakra Pravartan Din at Aurangabad Caves area in Aurangabad, Maharashtra on 18 October 2018.

Almost all Marathi Buddhists belong to the Navayana tradition, a 20th-century Buddhist revival movement in India that received its most substantial impetus from B. R. Ambedkar who called for the conversion to Buddhism by rejecting the caste-based society of Hinduism, that considered them to be the lowest in the hierarchy.

Deekshabhoomi Stupa

Deekshabhoomi

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Sacred monument of Navayana Buddhism located at Nagpur city in Maharashtra state of India, where B. R. Ambedkar, embraced Buddhism with approximately 600,000 of his followers mainly scheduled caste peoples on Ashoka Vijaya Dashami on 14 October 1956.

Sacred monument of Navayana Buddhism located at Nagpur city in Maharashtra state of India, where B. R. Ambedkar, embraced Buddhism with approximately 600,000 of his followers mainly scheduled caste peoples on Ashoka Vijaya Dashami on 14 October 1956.

Deekshabhoomi Stupa
22 vows given by Ambedkar at Deekshabhoomi
Ambedkar and Deekshabhoomi on a 2017 postage stamp of India
Bust of Babasaheb Ambedkar at Deekshabhoomi
Ambedkar delivering speech during mass conversion in Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur, 14 October 1956.
The President, Shri Ram Nath Kovind in a group photograph, during his visit to Deeksha Bhoomi, at Nagpur, in Maharashtra.
Dikshabhumi
Inner side of Deeksha Bhoomi - Bodhisattva Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar ashes urn (in glass) after cremation in front of the Buddha statue
The Bodhi Tree at Deekshabhoomi
Deekshabhoomi in night.
Marathi Buddhists gather to Dhammachakra Pravartan Din celebration at Deekshabhoomi and a bhikkhu holds the Buddhist flag.

In this way, Nagpur became the birthplace of Neo Buddhist movement.

Representatives from the three major modern Buddhist traditions, at the World Fellowship of Buddhists, 27th General Conference, 2014.

Schools of Buddhism

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The schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.

The schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.

Representatives from the three major modern Buddhist traditions, at the World Fellowship of Buddhists, 27th General Conference, 2014.
Map showing major Buddhist divisions
Districtwise Buddhist population percentage, India census 2011. India's West-centre area Maharashtra shows Navayana Buddhist population
Percentage of Buddhists by country, according to the Pew Research Center.
Map of the major geographical centers of major Buddhist schools in South Asia, at around the time of Xuanzang's visit in the seventh century. * Red: non-Pudgalavāda Sarvāstivāda school * Orange: non-Dharmaguptaka Vibhajyavāda schools * Yellow: Mahāsāṃghika * Green: Pudgalavāda (Green) * Gray: Dharmaguptaka Note the red and grey schools already gave some original ideas of Mahayana Buddhism and the Sri Lankan section (see Tamrashatiya) of the orange school is the origin of modern Theravada Buddhism.
The Tipitaka (Pali Canon), in a Thai Style book case. The Pali Tipitaka is the doctrinal foundation of all major Theravāda sects today
Nagarjuna, one of the most influential thinkers of Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism
Indian Buddhist Mahasiddhas, 18th century, Boston MFA.
B. R. Ambedkar delivering speech during conversion, Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur, 14 October 1956
Taixu, the founder of Chinese Humanistic Buddhism

A fourth branch, Navayāna, is sometimes included as well. It is a re-interpretation of Buddhism by B. R. Ambedkar. Ambedkar was born in a Dalit (untouchable) family during the colonial era of India, studied abroad, became a Dalit leader, and announced in 1935 his intent to convert from Hinduism to Buddhism. Thereafter Ambedkar studied texts of Buddhism, found several of its core beliefs and doctrines such as Four Noble Truths and "non-self" as flawed and pessimistic, re-interpreted these into what he called "new vehicle" of Buddhism. Ambedkar held a press conference on October 13, 1956, announcing his rejection of many traditional interpretations of practices and precepts of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, as well as of Hinduism. Thereafter, he left Hinduism and adopted Navayana, about six weeks before his death. In the Dalit Buddhist movement of India, Navayana is considered a new branch of Buddhism, different from the traditionally recognized branches of Theravada, Mahayana and Vajrayana. Marathi Buddhists follow Navayana.

Engaged Buddhism

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Engaged Buddhism, also known as socially engaged Buddhism, refers to a Buddhist social movement that emerged in Asia in the 20th century, composed of Buddhists who are seeking ways to apply the Buddhist ethics, insights acquired from meditation practice, and the teachings of the Buddhist dharma to contemporary situations of social, political, environmental and economic suffering, and injustice.

Engaged Buddhism, also known as socially engaged Buddhism, refers to a Buddhist social movement that emerged in Asia in the 20th century, composed of Buddhists who are seeking ways to apply the Buddhist ethics, insights acquired from meditation practice, and the teachings of the Buddhist dharma to contemporary situations of social, political, environmental and economic suffering, and injustice.

Finding its roots in Vietnam through the Thiền Buddhist teacher Thích Nhất Hạnh, Engaged Buddhism was popularised by the Indian jurist, politician, and social reformer B. R. Ambedkar who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement in the 1950s, and has since grown by spreading to the Indian subcontinent and the West.

Interior of the Dharmarajika Chetiya Vihara of the Maha Bodhi Society, College Square, Kolkata, official opening on 26 November 1920.

Maha Bodhi Society

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South Asian Buddhist society presently based in Kolkata, India.

South Asian Buddhist society presently based in Kolkata, India.

Interior of the Dharmarajika Chetiya Vihara of the Maha Bodhi Society, College Square, Kolkata, official opening on 26 November 1920.
Inside view of the Maha Bodhi Society
Headquarters, Maha Bodhi Society of India, Chatterjee Street, Kolkata. October 2014.
Lawrence Dundas, Lord Ronaldshay and Governor of Bengal (1917-22) presents the Buddha relic which had been discovered 1892 in Battiporolu to Ashutosh Mukherjee, then Vice Chancellor of Calucatta University, acting Chief Justice of the Calcutta High Court and President of the Mahabodhi Society, Calcutta to be enshrined in the newly opened Dharmarajika Chetiya Vihara on College Square. Morning of 26th Nov. 1920 on the steps of Government House, Calcutta.
The temple as it appeared in the 1780s
Mahabodhi Mulagandhakuti Buddhist Temple at Sarnath
Mulagandhakuti fresco by Kosetsu Nosu
The night view of Sarnath's Mulagandha Kuty Vihara
Ven. P Seewalee Thero, the current General Secretary of the Maha Bodhi Society of India at an event in Sarnath.

The Maha Bodhi Society renewed interest in Buddhism, and spawned the Ladakh Buddhist Association, All Assam Buddhist Association, and Himalayan Buddhist Society, as well as laying the grounds for the Dalit Buddhist movement.

Romani people

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Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants.

Indo-Aryan ethnic group, traditionally nomadic itinerants.

Three Finnish Romani women in Helsinki, Finland, in 1930s
Gypsies camping. Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953
Romani girl
Two Gypsies by Francisco Iturrino
A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary, by Sándor Bihari, 1886
The migration of the Romanis through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in Grandborough Fields in Warwickshire. Grandborough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people.
First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons
Gypsy Family in Prison, 1864 painting by Carl d´Unker. An actual imprisoned family in Germany served as the models. The reason for their imprisonment remains unknown.
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest
Sinti and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, 22 May 1940
Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia (facsimile of a woodcut), Basle
Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia, 1837
Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage to Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in France, 1980s
Two Orthodox Christian Romanies in Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Romani and bear (Belgrade, Banovo brdo, 1980s)
Members of the Cofradía de los Gitanos parading the "throne" of Mary of the O during the Holy Week in Malaga, Spain
Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni Kozakiewicz, 1884
Costume of a Romani woman
Muslim Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina (around 1900)
27 June 2009: Fanfare Ciocărlia live in Athens, Greece
Street performance during the Khamoro World Roma Festival in Prague, 2007
Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle)
Distribution of the Romani people in Europe (2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)
Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011
Paris Bordone, The Rest on the Flight into Egypt {{circa|1530}}, Elizabeth, at right, is shown as a Romani fortune-teller
August von Pettenkofen: Gypsy Children (1885), Hermitage Museum
Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, oil on canvas)
Carmen
Esméralda
Nicolae Grigorescu Gypsy from Boldu (1897), Art Museum of Iași

Theravada Buddhism influenced by the Dalit Buddhist movement have become popular in recent times among Hungarian Roma.

Mayawati

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Indian politician.

Indian politician.

Mayawati with Akhilesh Yadav
Ambedkar Memorial Park at night
Statues of Mayawati (L) and Kanshi Ram (R) at Ambedkar Memorial Park.

She has stated her intention to formally convert to Buddhism when the political conditions enable her to become Prime Minister of India.