Dam

earthfilldamsconcrete-face rock-fill damrock-fill damdammingimpoundmentgravitygravity damdammedanicut
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.wikipedia
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Reservoir

artificial lakereservoirsartificial
Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability.
A reservoir usually means an enlarged natural or artificial lake, storage pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water.

Rotterdam

Rotterdam, NetherlandsRotterdam, The NetherlandsHavenbedrijf Rotterdam
The names of more than 40 places (with minor changes) from the Middle Dutch era (1150–1500 CE) such as Amsterdam (founded as 'Amstelredam' in the late 12th century) and Rotterdam, also bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time. For instance the Dutch capital Amsterdam (old name Amstelredam) started with a dam through the river Amstel in the late 12th century, and Rotterdam started with a dam through the river Rotte, a minor tributary of the Nieuwe Maas.
Its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety.

Diversion dam

diversiondeflection damsdiversion dams
The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a diversion dam for flood control, but was destroyed by heavy rain during construction or shortly afterwards.
A diversion dam is a dam that diverts all or a portion of the flow of a river from its natural course.

Jawa Dam (Jordan)

Jawa DamhydrologyJawa
The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC.
The Jawa Dam is the remains of an ancient masonry gravity dam on Wadi Rajil at Jawa in Mafraq Governorate, Jordan, 58 km north of Azraq.

Floodgate

floodgatesgatestide gate
Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions.
They may be designed to set spillway crest heights in dams, to adjust flow rates in sluices and canals, or they may be designed to stop water flow entirely as part of a levee or storm surge system.

Kallanai Dam

Grand AnicutGrand AnaicutGrand Anaicut canal
The Kallanai is constructed of unhewn stone, over 300 m long, 4.5 m high and 20 m wide, across the main stream of the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu, South India.
Kallanai (also known as the Grand Anicut) is an ancient dam, which is built (in running water) across the Kaveri river in Tiruchirappalli District in the state of Tamil Nadu in India.

Hydropower

water powerhydro powerhydro
Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity.
but dams can have significant negative social and environmental impacts.

Arch dam

archconcrete archmultiple-arch dam
These include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD (see List of Roman dams).
An arch dam is a concrete dam that is curved upstream in plan.

List of Roman dams and reservoirs

damdamsRoman dam
These include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD (see List of Roman dams). Roman dam construction was characterized by "the Romans' ability to plan and organize engineering construction on a grand scale."
This is a list of Roman dams and reservoirs. The study of Roman dam-building has received little scholarly attention in comparison to their other civil engineering activities, even though their contributions in this field have been ranked alongside their expertise in constructing the well-known Roman aqueducts, bridges, and roads.

Subiaco Dams

largest of these dams
The highest Roman dam was the Subiaco Dam near Rome; its record height of 50 m remained unsurpassed until its accidental destruction in 1305.
The Subiaco Dams were a group of three Roman gravity dams at Subiaco, Lazio, Italy, devised as pleasure lakes for emperor Nero (54–68 AD).

Arch-gravity dam

Arch-gravityarched damgravity-arch dam
These include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD (see List of Roman dams). Based on structure and material used, dams are classified as easily created without materials, arch-gravity dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes.
An arch-gravity dam or arched dam is a dam with the characteristics of both an arch dam and a gravity dam.

Lake Homs Dam

huge dam of Roman originsRoman-era dam
Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and particularly Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than previously built, such as the Lake Homs Dam, possibly the largest water barrier to that date, and the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria.
The Lake Homs Dam, also known as Quatinah Barrage, is a Roman-built dam near the city of Homs, Syria, which is in use to this day.

Band-e Kaisar

dam bridge in Shushtarfirst dam bridge in Iran
Roman workforces also were the first to build dam bridges, such as the Bridge of Valerian in Iran.
The Band-e Kaisar, Pol-e Kaisar ("Caesar's bridge"), Bridge of Valerian or Shadirwan was an ancient arch bridge in Shushtar, Iran, and the first in the country to combine it with a dam.

Harbaqa Dam

Their pioneering use of water-proof hydraulic mortar and particularly Roman concrete allowed for much larger dam structures than previously built, such as the Lake Homs Dam, possibly the largest water barrier to that date, and the Harbaqa Dam, both in Roman Syria.
The Harbaqa Dam or Kharbaqa Dam was a Roman era Palmyrene gravity dam in the Syrian desert about 70 km southwest from Palmyra on the road to Damascus.

Sunshu Ao

It was finished in 251 BC. A large earthen dam, made by Sunshu Ao, the prime minister of Chu (state), flooded a valley in modern-day northern Anhui province that created an enormous irrigation reservoir (62 mi in circumference), a reservoir that is still present today.
Sunshu Ao was entrusted with many endeavors of the state, and because of a large dam, reservoir, and irrigation project he had established, he is also credited as the first known hydraulic engineer of China.

Jones Falls Dam

Jones Falls
In particular, the Jones Falls Dam, built by John Redpath, was completed in 1832 as the largest dam in North America and an engineering marvel.
Jones Falls Dam is a dam on the Rideau Canal located in Rideau Lakes, Leeds and Grenville United Counties, Ontario, Canada, that was built in 1831 and completed in 1832 to tame the mile-long series of rapids and falls that runs through the Jones Falls.

Masonry dam

masonry
The era of large dams was initiated with the construction of the Aswan Low Dam in Egypt in 1902, a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River. Based on structure and material used, dams are classified as easily created without materials, arch-gravity dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes.
Masonry dams are dams made out of masonrymainly stone and brick, sometimes joined with mortar.

Buttress dam

Buttressbuttress main damconcrete buttress
These include arch-gravity dams, arch dams, buttress dams and multiple arch buttress dams, all of which were known and employed by the 2nd century AD (see List of Roman dams). The era of large dams was initiated with the construction of the Aswan Low Dam in Egypt in 1902, a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River.
A buttress dam or hollow dam is a dam with a solid, water-tight upstream side that is supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses or supports.

Embankment dam

embankmentearthen damearth-fill dam
Based on structure and material used, dams are classified as easily created without materials, arch-gravity dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes.
An embankment dam is a large artificial dam.

Daniel-Johnson Dam

Manic-5Manic-5 and Manic-5-PAManic-5 Generating Station
The multiple-arch dam consists of a number of single-arch dams with concrete buttresses as the supporting abutments, as for example the Daniel-Johnson Dam, Québec, Canada.
The Daniel-Johnson Dam (Barrage Daniel-Johnson), formerly known as Manic-5, is a multiple-arch buttress dam on the Manicouagan River that creates the annular Manicouagan Reservoir.

Dujiangyan

Irrigation Systemcity's ancient irrigation systemDu Jiang Yan
Du Jiang Yan is the oldest surviving irrigation system in China that included a dam that directed waterflow.
One solution would have been to build a dam but Li Bing had also been charged with keeping the waterway open for military vessels to supply troops on the frontier, so instead he proposed to construct an artificial levee to redirect a portion of the river's flow and then to cut a channel through Mount Yulei to discharge the excess water upon the dry Chengdu Plain beyond.

Rotte (river)

RotteRotte river
For instance the Dutch capital Amsterdam (old name Amstelredam) started with a dam through the river Amstel in the late 12th century, and Rotterdam started with a dam through the river Rotte, a minor tributary of the Nieuwe Maas.
The Rotte is the eponym of the city of Rotterdam: the city was founded in the 13th century when a dam was built along the river.

Sadd el-Kafara

The Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide.
The dam was not finished but was about 111m long and 14m tall with a base width of 98m and crest width of 56m.

Tidal barrage

barragelow-tide barragetidal fence generating station
Barrages that are built at the mouths of rivers or lagoons to prevent tidal incursions or utilize the tidal flow for tidal power are known as tidal barrages.
Instead of damming water on one side like a conventional dam, a tidal barrage allows water to flow into a bay or river during high tide, and releases the water during low tide.

Concrete

admixturesworkabilityadmixture
The impervious zone may be on the upstream face and made of masonry, concrete, plastic membrane, steel sheet piles, timber or other material.
Today, large concrete structures (for example, dams and multi-story car parks) are usually made with reinforced concrete.