Danish language

DanishDanish-languageDanskOld Danishdada.danDan.Standard Danishcommon Danish
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.wikipedia
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North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth Germanic
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Danish is a Germanic language of the North Germanic branch.
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople.

Denmark

DanishKingdom of DenmarkConstituent country
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Denmark has close ties to its Scandinavian neighbours also linguistically, with the Danish language being partially mutually intelligible with both Norwegian and Swedish.

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina.
In addition, the Norwegian languages share mutual intelligibility with Danish and Swedish.

Sweden

SwedishSWEKingdom of Sweden
Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina.
Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, and the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi (Finnish) and Rootsi (Estonian) are used, names commonly considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, Uppland, who were known as the Rus', and through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia.

Scandinavia

Scandinavian countriesScandinavianNordic
Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.
The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another.

Scania

SkåneSkane(Skåne)
Until the 16th century, Danish was a continuum of dialects spoken from Schleswig to Scania with no standard variety or spelling conventions.
The endonym used in Swedish and other North Germanic languages is Skåne (formerly spelled Skaane in Danish and Norwegian).

Middle Norwegian

M.Norw.Norwegian
Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic.
Middle Norwegian (Norwegian Bokmål: mellomnorsk; Norwegian Nynorsk: mellomnorsk, millomnorsk) is a form of the Norwegian language that was spoken from 1350 up to 1550 and was the last phase of Norwegian in its original state, before Danish replaced Norwegian as the official written language of what is now Norway.

Bokmål

Norwegian BokmålNorwegian (Bokmål)Norwegian
Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic.
The written standard is a Norwegianised variety of the Danish language.

Copenhagen

Copenhagen, DenmarkKøbenhavnKopenhagen
With the Protestant Reformation and the introduction of printing, a standard language was developed which was based on the educated Copenhagen dialect.
The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, meaning Merchants' Harbour or, in the Danish of the time, Købmannahavn.

Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
Danish is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish.
Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties; some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Danish is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish.
It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and to some extent with Danish, although the degree of mutual intelligibility is largely dependent on the dialect and accent of the speaker.

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
Danish is a Germanic language of the North Germanic branch.
The largest North Germanic languages are Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, which are mutually intelligible and have a combined total of about 20 million native speakers in the Nordic countries and an additional five million second language speakers; since the middle ages these languages have however been strongly influenced by the West Germanic language Middle Low German, and Low German words account for about 30–60% of their vocabularies according to various estimates.

Stød

vestjysk stød
Danish has a very large vowel inventory comprising 27 phonemically distinctive vowels, and its prosody is characterized by the distinctive phenomenon stød, a kind of laryngeal phonation type.
Some dialects of Southern Danish realize stød in a way that is more similar to the tonal word accents of Norwegian and Swedish.

Germanic peoples

GermanicGermanic tribesGermanic tribe
Along with the other North Germanic languages, Danish is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples who lived in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.
North Germanic languages are Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Faroese and Icelandic.

Language shift

shiftedshiftshifting
Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language.
In Southern Schleswig, an area that belonged to Denmark until the Second Schleswig War 1864, there was from the 17th and up to the 20th centuries a language shift from Danish and North Frisian dialects to Low German and later High German.

Faroese language

FaroeseFaeroeseOld Faroese
Danish, together with Swedish, derives from the East Norse dialect group, while the Middle Norwegian language before the influence of Danish and Norwegian Bokmål are classified as West Norse along with Faroese and Icelandic.
In 1937, Faroese replaced Danish as the official school language, in 1938 as the church language, and in 1948 as the national language by the Home Rule Act of the Faroes.

Demographics of Greenland

GreenlandicGreenlandersdetails
Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language.
The remainder of the population mainly speaks Danish; Inuit Sign Language is the language of the deaf community.

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
Danish is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish. A more recent classification based on mutual intelligibility separates modern spoken Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish as "mainland Scandinavian", while Icelandic and Faroese are classified as "insular Scandinavian".

Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog ) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

Peder Syv

In the second half of the 17th century, grammarians elaborated grammars of Danish, first among them Rasmus Bartholin's 1657 Latin grammar De studio lingvæ danicæ; then Laurids Olufsen Kock's 1660 grammar of the Zealand dialect Introductio ad lingvam Danicam puta selandicam; and in 1685 the first Danish grammar written in Danish, Den Danske Sprog-Kunst ("The Art of the Danish Language") by Peder Syv.
Peder Pedersen Syv (also spelled Siuf) or in Latin Petrus Petri Septimius (February 22, 1631 – February 17, 1702 ) was a Danish philologist, folklorist and priest, known for his collections of Danish proverbs and folksongs, and his contributions to the development of Danish as a written language.

Denmark–Norway

Denmark-NorwayKingdom of Denmark–NorwayKingdom of Denmark and Norway
Danish was an official language in Iceland until 1944, but is today still widely used and is a mandatory subject in school taught as a second foreign language after English, Iceland was a ruled territory of Denmark-Norway, where Danish was one of the official languages.
Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge), also known as the DanoNorwegian Realm, the Oldenburg Monarchy, or the Oldenburg realms, was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including the Norwegian overseas possessions: the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.

Søren Kierkegaard

KierkegaardSoren KierkegaardSøren Aabye Kierkegaard
Some of the most cherished Danish-language authors of this period are existential philosopher Søren Kierkegaard and prolific fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen.
Kierkegaard wrote in Danish and the reception of his work was initially limited to Scandinavia, but by the turn of the 20th century his writings were translated into French, German, and other major European languages.

Vikings

VikingNorseDanes
Many words derived from Norse, such as "gate" for street, still survive in Yorkshire, the East Midlands and East Anglia, and parts of eastern England colonized by Danish Vikings.
A lot of Old Norse connections are evident in the modern-day languages of Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Faroese and Icelandic.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
In addition, a noticeable community of Danish speakers is in Southern Schleswig, the portion of Germany bordering Denmark, where it is an officially recognized regional language, just as German is north of the border.
There are strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group.

Christiern Pedersen

Kristiern Pedersen
The first complete translation of the Bible in Danish, the Bible of Christian II translated by Christiern Pedersen, was published in 1550.
While considering writing a new Latin-Danish lexicon, he wrote a replacement for the 300-year-old Latin grammar, Doctrinale, written in 1199 by Alexander of Villedieu, and still used as standard in the schools of Denmark at that time.