Dante Alighieri

DanteDante’sDanteanAlighieriA divina comédia do CarnavalAlighieri DanteAlighieri, DanteAndante alighieriblessed bones of the divine poetDante Alghieri
Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri (Dantes), commonly known by his pen name Dante Alighieri or simply as Dante (, also, ; – 1321), was an Italian poet.wikipedia
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Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.
The theology of Thomas Aquinas, the paintings of Giotto, the poetry of Dante and Chaucer, the travels of Marco Polo, and the Gothic architecture of cathedrals such as Chartres are among the outstanding achievements toward the end of this period and into the Late Middle Ages.

De vulgari eloquentia

the essay
In De vulgari eloquentia (On Eloquence in the Vernacular), however, Dante defended the use of the vernacular in literature.
De vulgari eloquentia (, ; "On eloquence in the vernacular" (L'eloquenza in lingua volgare)) is the title of a Latin essay by Dante Alighieri.

La Vita Nuova

Vita NuovaThe New LifeVita Nova
He would even write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and the Divine Comedy; this highly unorthodox choice set a precedent that important later Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would follow.
La Vita Nuova (Italian for "The New Life") or Vita Nova (Latin title) is a text by Dante Alighieri published in 1294.

Giovanni Boccaccio

BoccaccioBoccacioGiovanni Bocaccio
His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.
Boccaccio may have been tutored by Giovanni Mazzuoli and received from him an early introduction to the works of Dante.

Petrarch

Francesco PetrarcaPetrarcaFrancesco Petrarch
He would even write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and the Divine Comedy; this highly unorthodox choice set a precedent that important later Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would follow.
In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri.

Tuscan dialect

TuscanTuscan languageTuscan vernacular
He would even write in the Tuscan dialect for works such as The New Life (1295) and the Divine Comedy; this highly unorthodox choice set a precedent that important later Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would follow.
Standard Italian is based on Tuscan, specifically on its Florentine dialect, and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the works by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli, and Francesco Guicciardini.

Florence

FlorentineFlorence, ItalyFirenze
Dante was born in Florence, Republic of Florence, present-day Italy.
The Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered the most important poem of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.
The language that came to be thought of as Italian developed in central Tuscany and was first formalized in the early 14th century through the works of Tuscan writer Dante Alighieri, written in his native Florentine.

Inferno (Dante)

InfernoDante's InfernoDante's ''Inferno
This can be deduced from autobiographic allusions in the Divine Comedy. Its first section, the Inferno, begins, "Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita" ("Midway upon the journey of our life"), implying that Dante was around 35 years old, since the average lifespan according to the Bible (Psalm 89:10, Vulgate) is 70 years; and since his imaginary travel to the netherworld took place in 1300, he was most probably born around 1265.
Inferno (Italian for "Hell") is the first part of Italian writer Dante Alighieri's 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy.

Hell

eternal punishmentinfernoinfernal
Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, and his depictions of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art.
Hell is often depicted in art and literature, perhaps most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy.

Italy

ItalianITAItalia
Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, and his depictions of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art.
Italy first felt huge economic changes in Europe which led to the commercial revolution: the Republic of Venice was able to defeat the Byzantine Empire and finance the voyages of Marco Polo to Asia; the first universities were formed in Italian cities, and scholars such as Thomas Aquinas obtained international fame; Frederick of Sicily made Italy the political-cultural centre of a reign that temporarily included the Holy Roman Empire and the Kingdom of Jerusalem; capitalism and banking families emerged in Florence, where Dante and Giotto were active around 1300.

Italian poetry

ItalianItalyItalian poet
Durante di Alighiero degli Alighieri (Dantes), commonly known by his pen name Dante Alighieri or simply as Dante (, also, ; – 1321), was an Italian poet.

Terza rima

In addition, the first use of the interlocking three-line rhyme scheme, or the terza rima, is attributed to him.
It was first used by the Italian poet Dante Alighieri.

Battle of Montaperti

MontapertiMontaperti in 1260
Dante's father, Alighiero or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the middle of the 13th century.
An act of treachery during the battle is recorded by Dante Alighieri in the Inferno section of the Divine Comedy.

Beatrice Portinari

BeatriceBéatriceBeatricean
But by this time Dante had fallen in love with another, Beatrice Portinari (known also as Bice), whom he first met when he was only nine.
Beatrice "Bice" di Folco Portinari (, 1265 – 8 June 1290) was an Italian woman who has been commonly identified as the principal inspiration for Dante Alighieri's Vita Nuova, and is also commonly identified with the Beatrice who appears as one of his guides in the Divine Comedy (La Divina Commedia) in the last book, Paradiso, and in the last four canti of Purgatorio.

Troubadour

troubadourstroubadortroubadors
His interests brought him to discover the Provençal poetry of the troubadours, such as Arnaut Daniel, and the Latin writers of classical antiquity, including Cicero, Ovid and especially Virgil.
Dante Alighieri in his De vulgari eloquentia defined the troubadour lyric as fictio rethorica musicaque poita: rhetorical, musical, and poetical fiction.

Jacopo Alighieri

Iacopo AlighieriJacopo
Although several others subsequently claimed to be his offspring, it is likely that only Jacopo, Pietro, Giovanni, and Antonia were his actual children.
Jacopo Alighieri (1289–1348) was an Italian poet, the son of Dante Alighieri, whom he followed in his exile.

Alighiero di Bellincione

father
Dante's father, Alighiero or Alighiero di Bellincione, was a White Guelph who suffered no reprisals after the Ghibellines won the Battle of Montaperti in the middle of the 13th century.
1210–not after 1283) was the father of Dante Alighieri.

Cacciaguida

Dante claimed that his family descended from the ancient Romans (Inferno, XV, 76), but the earliest relative he could mention by name was Cacciaguida degli Elisei (Paradiso, XV, 135), born no earlier than about 1100.
1098 – c. 1148) was an Italian crusader, the great-great-grandfather of Dante Alighieri.

Republic of Florence

FlorenceFlorentineFlorentine Republic
Dante was born in Florence, Republic of Florence, present-day Italy.
While the banks perished, Florentine literature flourished, and Florence was home to some of the greatest writers in Italian history: Dante, Petrarch and Boccaccio.

Virgil

VergilPublius Vergilius MaroVirgilian
His interests brought him to discover the Provençal poetry of the troubadours, such as Arnaut Daniel, and the Latin writers of classical antiquity, including Cicero, Ovid and especially Virgil.
Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through Hell and Purgatory.

Purgatory

purgatorialpurgationForsaken Soul
Dante was instrumental in establishing the literature of Italy, and his depictions of Hell, Purgatory and Heaven provided inspiration for the larger body of Western art.
Le Goff dedicates the final chapter of his book to the Purgatorio, the second book in Dante's fourteenth-century La divina commedia (The Divine Comedy).

Arnaut Daniel

His interests brought him to discover the Provençal poetry of the troubadours, such as Arnaut Daniel, and the Latin writers of classical antiquity, including Cicero, Ovid and especially Virgil.
Arnaut Daniel (fl. 1180–1200) was an Occitan troubadour of the 12th century, praised by Dante as a "the best smith" (miglior fabbro) and called a "grand master of love" (gran maestro d'amore) by Petrarch.

Sicilian School

Sicilian courtly poetrySicilian verseSicilians
It is known that he studied Tuscan poetry and that he admired the compositions of the Bolognese poet Guido Guinizelli—whom in Purgatorio XXVI he characterized as his "father"—at a time when the Sicilian school (Scuola poetica Siciliana), a cultural group from Sicily, was becoming known in Tuscany.
What distinguishes the Sicilian School from the troubadours, however, is the introduction of a kinder, gentler type of woman than that found in their French models; one who was nearer to Dante's madonnas and Petrarch's Laura, though much less characterised psychologically.

Convivio

The Convivio chronicles his having read Boethius's De consolatione philosophiae and Cicero's De Amicitia. He then dedicated himself to philosophical studies at religious schools like the Dominican one in Santa Maria Novella.
Convivio (The Banquet) is a work written by Dante Alighieri roughly between 1304 and 1307.