A report on Dara Shikoh and Murad Bakhsh

Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh
Portrait of Murad Bakhsh c. 1655
18th-century portrait of Dara Shikoh
Murad Bakhsh in his 30s, portrait circa 1655
Dara's brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years, ca 1637
Murad Baksh, younger brother of Aurangzeb
Young Dara Shikoh (Left) and Mian Mir (Right)
The marriage of Dara Shikoh and Nadira Begum, 1875–90
Wedding procession of Dara Shikoh, with Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb behind him. Royal Collection Trust, London.
Dara Shikoh with his army
Humayun's Tomb, where the remains of Dara Shikoh were interred in an unidentified grave.
A page from the Majma-ul-Bahrain, Victoria Memorial, Calcutta.
Dara Shikoh (with Mian Mir and Mullah Shah Badakhshi), ca. 1635
A painting from the Persian translation of Yoga Vasistha manuscript, 1602
A Prince in Iranian Costume by Muhammad Khan. Dara Shikoh Album, Agra, 1633–34.
Shah Jahan Receiving Dara Shikoh

Murad's siblings included his two politically powerful sisters, the princesses Jahanara Begum and Roshanara Begum, as well as the heir-apparent to his father, his eldest brother, Crown Prince Dara Shikoh and the future Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

- Murad Bakhsh

Dara Shikoh had thirteen siblings of whom six survived to adulthood: Jahanara Begum, Shah Shuja, Roshanara Begum, Aurangzeb, Murad Bakhsh, and Gauhara Begum.

- Dara Shikoh
Miniature portrait of Dara Shikoh

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Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630

Shah Jahan

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The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

The fifth emperor of the Mughal Empire, reigning from January 1628 until July 1658.

Portrait of Shah Jahan in c. 1630
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Rosette bearing the names and titles of Shah Jahan
The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan and his wife Mumtaz Mahal
The Submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar to Prince Khurram, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri.
Shah Jahan on horseback (during his youth).
Shah Jahan at his Durbar, from the Windsor Padshahnama, c. 1657
Shah Jahan the Great Mogul
Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi
Painting of Shah Jahan hunting Asiatic lions at Burhanpur, present-day Madhya Pradesh, from 1630
Shah Jahan and his eldest son Dara Shikoh.
The Passing of Shah Jahan
The actual tombs of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in the lower level of Taj Mahal
Red Fort
The elegant Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.
Agra Fort
Shah Jahan and the Mughal Army return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.<ref>{{cite book |last=Dani |first=A. H. |date=2003 |chapter=The Architecture of the Mughal Empire (North-Western Regions) |editor-last1=Adle |editor-first1=Chahryar |editor-last2=Habib |editor-first2=Irfan |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |title=History of Civilizations of Central Asia |volume=V |chapter-url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001302/130205e.pdf |publisher=UNESCO |page=524 |isbn=978-92-3-103876-1}}</ref>
Moti Masjid (Red Fort)
Finial, Tamga of the Mughal Empire (combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).
Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)
Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.
Copper Dam from Daryakot mint
Silver Rupee from Multan

In September 1657, Shah Jahan was ailing from an illness and he appointed his eldest son Dara Shikoh as his successor.

Upon learning of his assumption of the regency, his younger brothers, Shuja, Viceroy of Bengal, and Murad Baksh, Viceroy of Gujarat, declared their independence and marched upon Agra in order to claim their riches.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660

Aurangzeb

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The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

The sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire, ruling from July 1658 until his death in 1707.

Aurangzeb holding a hawk in c. 1660
A painting from c. 1637 shows the brothers (left to right) Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh in their younger years.
The Mughal Army under the command of Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
A painting from Padshahnama depicts Prince Aurangzeb facing a maddened war elephant named Sudhakar.
Sepoys loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb maintain their positions around the palace, at Aurangabad, in 1658.
Aurangzeb becomes emperor.
Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb in early 18th century
Aurangzeb compiled Hanafi law by introducing the Fatawa-e-Alamgiri.
Aurangzeb holding a flywhisk
Aurangzeb seated on a golden throne holding a Hawk in the Durbar. Standing before him is his son, Azam Shah.
Aurangzeb Receives Prince Mu'azzam. Chester Beatty Library
Dagger (Khanjar) of Aurangzeb (Badshah Alamgir).
Manuscript of the Quran, parts of which are believed to have been written in Aurangzeb's own hand.
The Birthday of the Grand Mogul Aurangzeb, made 1701–1708 by Johann Melchior Dinglinger.
Josiah Child requests a pardon from Aurangzeb during the Anglo-Mughal War.
By 1690, Aurangzeb was acknowledged as: "emperor of the Mughal Sultanate from Cape Comorin to Kabul".
Aurangzeb spent his reign crushing major and minor rebellions throughout the Mughal Empire.
The tomb of Akbar was pillaged by Jat rebels during the reign of Aurangzeb.
Aurangzeb leads the Mughal Army during the Battle of Satara.
Raja Shivaji at Aurangzeb's Darbar- M V Dhurandhar
Aurangzeb reciting the Quran.
Aurangzeb dispatched his personal imperial guard during the campaign against the Satnami rebels.
Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Delhi is built at the place where Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded.
Zafarnama is the name given to the letter sent by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh in 1705 to Aurangzeb. The letter is written in Persian script.
Aurangzeb in a pavilion with three courtiers below.
Bibi Ka Maqbara, the mausoleum of Aurangzeb's wife Dilras Banu Begum, was commissioned by him
Aurangzeb's tomb in Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Aurangzeb reading the Quran
The unmarked grave of Aurangzeb in the mausoleum at Khuldabad, Maharashtra.
Tughra and seal of Aurangzeb, on an imperial firman
In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities and executed.<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehta |first=J. L. |title=Advanced Study in the History of Modern India: Volume One: 1707{{snd}}1813 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d1wUgKKzawoC&pg=PA50 |access-date=29 September 2012 |date=2005 |publisher=Sterling Publishers |isbn=978-1-932705-54-6 |pages=50–}}</ref><ref name="google2">{{cite book |last=Stein |first=Burton |author-link=Burton Stein |year=2010 |orig-year=First published 1998 |editor-last=Arnold |editor-first=David |editor-link=David Arnold (historian) |title=A History of India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA180 |publisher=Blackwell Publishers |edition=2nd |page=180 |isbn=978-1-4051-9509-6}}</ref>
Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html |title=A Gateway to Sikhism {{!}} Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib |website=Gateway to Sikhism |access-date=28 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140327223831/http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/Sikh-Guru-Ji'/Sri-Guru-Tegh-Bhadur-Sahib-Ji.html#12 |archive-date=27 March 2014 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed.<ref name="David Cook 2007">{{cite book |last=Cook |first=David |author-link=David Cook (historian) |year=2007 |title=Martyrdom in Islam |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=80 |isbn=978-0-521-85040-7}}</ref>
Daulatabad cannon
Kalak Bangadi cannon.
One of the Daulatabad cannons
Kilkila cannon
Aurangabad cannon
Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore.
Bibi ka Maqbara.
Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb.
Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world.
Shawl makers in the Mughal Empire.
Mughal imperial carpet
March of the Great Moghul (Aurangzeb)
François Bernier, was a French physician and traveller, who for 12 years was the personal physician of Aurangzeb. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire.
Map of the Mughal Empire by Vincenzo Coronelli (1650–1718) of Venice, who served as Royal Geographer to Louis XIV of France.
French map of the Deccan.
Half rupee
Rupee coin showing full name
Rupee with square area
A copper dam of Aurangzeb
A Mughal trooper in the Deccan.
Aurangzeb leads his final expedition (1705), leading an army of 500,000 troops.
Mughal-era aristocrat armed with a matchlock musket.
Aurangzeb, in later life, hunting with hounds and falconers

In September 1657, Shah Jahan nominated his eldest and liberalist son Dara Shikoh as his successor, a move repudiated by Aurangzeb, who proclaimed himself emperor in February 1658.

In 1647, Shah Jahan moved Aurangzeb from Gujarat to be governor of Balkh, replacing a younger son, Murad Baksh, who had proved ineffective there.

Jahanara Begum

Jahanara Begum

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Mughal princess and later the Padshah Begum of the Mughal Empire from 1631 to 1658 and again from 1668 until her death.

Mughal princess and later the Padshah Begum of the Mughal Empire from 1631 to 1658 and again from 1668 until her death.

Jahanara Begum
Jahanara Begum
The Passing of Shah Jahan beside his daughter and caretaker Princess Jahanara. Painting by Abanindranath Tagore, 1902
Jahanara's tomb (left), Nizamuddin Auliya's tomb (right) and Jamaat Khana Masjid (background), at Nizamuddin Dargah complex, in Nizamuddin West, Delhi.

Jahanara was an ardent partisan of her brother, Dara Shikoh, and supported him as her father's chosen successor.

Aurangzeb, Murad, and Shaista Khan returned to Delhi to see her.

Battle of Samugarh

Battle of Samugarh

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Decisive battle in the struggle for the throne during the Mughal war of succession (1658–1659) between the sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan after the emperor's serious illness in September 1657.

Decisive battle in the struggle for the throne during the Mughal war of succession (1658–1659) between the sons of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan after the emperor's serious illness in September 1657.

Battle of Samugarh
Dara Shikoh
Sepoy's loyal to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, maintain their positions around Agra, in the year 1658. - by William Purser

The battle of Samugarh was fought between his sons Dara Shikoh (the eldest son and heir apparent) and his two younger brothers Aurangzeb and Murad Baksh (third and fourth sons of Shah Jahan).

Princess Roshanara with her attendants

Roshanara Begum

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Mughal princess and the third daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Mughal princess and the third daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan and his wife, Mumtaz Mahal.

Princess Roshanara with her attendants
Tomb of Roshanara Begum, Delhi
Tomb of Roshanara in her baradhari in Phulbangash, north Delhi
Front and left side view of tomb of Roshanara Begum
Interior decoration
A view of tomb of Roshanara Begum
A view of Roshanara Garden through tomb of Roshanara Begum

Of Roshanara's four brothers, the eldest, Dara Shikoh, was Shah Jahan's favourite son and heir apparent to the Peacock Throne.

Murad, the youngest son, was granted the Governorship of Gujarat, at which position he proved so weak and so ineffectual that Shah Jahan had him stripped of his titles, offering them to Dara Shikoh, instead.