Darknet

Dark Netdark webdarknetsdeep webtraceabilityunderground
Dark Net (or Darknet) is an umbrella term describing the portions of the Internet purposefully not open to public view or hidden networks whose architecture is superimposed on that of the Internet.wikipedia
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Dark web

deep webdarknetdark
The term has in later usage incorporated services such as the dark web, which is an overlay network that can be accessed only with specific software, configurations, or authorization, often using non-standard communication protocols and ports.
The dark web is the World Wide Web content that exists on darknets, overlay networks that use the Internet but require specific software, configurations, or authorization to access.

Clearnet (networking)

clearnet clearnetinternet
The reciprocal term for an encrypted darknet is clearnet or surface web when referring to content indexable by search engines.
Clearnet is a term typically referring to the unencrypted, or non-darknet, non-Tor Internet.

Peter Biddle

The term gained public acceptance following publication of "The Darknet and the Future of Content Distribution", a 2002 paper by Peter Biddle, Paul England, Marcus Peinado, and Bryan Willman, four employees of Microsoft who argued the presence of the darknet was the primary hindrance to the development of workable digital rights management (DRM) technologies and made copyright infringement inevitable.
He was one of the first authors to describe the concept of darknet,.

Darknet market

darknet marketsdarknet drug marketsblack market passwords
Subsequently, in 2014, journalist Jamie Bartlett in his book The Dark Net used the term to describe a range of underground and emergent subcultures, including camgirls, cryptoanarchists, darknet drug markets, self harm communities, social media racists, and transhumanists.
A darknet market or cryptomarket is a commercial website on the web that operates via darknets such as Tor or I2P.

Jamie Bartlett (journalist)

Jamie Bartlett
Subsequently, in 2014, journalist Jamie Bartlett in his book The Dark Net used the term to describe a range of underground and emergent subcultures, including camgirls, cryptoanarchists, darknet drug markets, self harm communities, social media racists, and transhumanists.
In 2014, Bartlett released his first full-length book, The Dark Net. The book discusses the darknet and dark web in broad terms, describing a range of underground and emergent subcultures, including social media racists, cam girls, self harm communities, darknet drug markets, cryptoanarchists and transhumanists.

Friend-to-friend

F2FF2F topologyfriend to friend
Types of dark webs include friend-to-friend networks (usually used for file sharing with a peer-to-peer connection) and privacy networks such as Tor. Freenet is a popular darknet (friend-to-friend) by default; since version 0.7 it can run as a "opennet" (peer nodes are discovered automatically). OneSwarm can be run as a darknet for friend-to-friend file-sharing. RetroShare can be run as a darknet (friend-to-friend) by default to perform anonymous file transfers if DHT and Discovery features are disabled.
Darknet

Tor (anonymity network)

TorTor anonymity networkTor network
"Darknet" is often associated with the encrypted part of the Internet called Tor network where illicit trading takes place such as the infamous online drug bazaar called Silk Road. All darknets require specific software installed or network configurations made to access them, such as Tor, which can be accessed via a customised browser from Vidalia (aka the Tor browser bundle), or alternatively via a proxy configured to perform the same function. Zeronet is open source software aimed to build an internet-like computer network of peer-to-peer users of Tor.
Darknet

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Dark Net (or Darknet) is an umbrella term describing the portions of the Internet purposefully not open to public view or hidden networks whose architecture is superimposed on that of the Internet. Zeronet is open source software aimed to build an internet-like computer network of peer-to-peer users of Tor.
Darknet

Overlay network

overlaynetwork overlayoverlaid network
The term has in later usage incorporated services such as the dark web, which is an overlay network that can be accessed only with specific software, configurations, or authorization, often using non-standard communication protocols and ports. I2P (Invisible Internet Project) is another overlay network that features a darknet whose sites are called "Eepsites".
Darknet

Decentralized network 42

Decentralized network 42 (not for anonymity but research purposes).
While other darknets try to establish anonymity for their participants, that is not what dn42 aims for.

Freenet

EffectFreenet Messaging System (FMS)Freenet Project
Freenet is a popular darknet (friend-to-friend) by default; since version 0.7 it can run as a "opennet" (peer nodes are discovered automatically).
The most fundamental change is support for darknet operation.

OneSwarm

OneSwarm can be run as a darknet for friend-to-friend file-sharing.
Although backward compatible with traditional BitTorrent clients, OneSwarm also includes new features designed to protect user privacy when sharing data among friends through creating a distributed darknet, so-called friend-to-friend sharing.

RetroShare

RetroShare can be run as a darknet (friend-to-friend) by default to perform anonymous file transfers if DHT and Discovery features are disabled.
RetroShare networks tend to follow the rule of Small World Network, though there are lot of isolated island networks which build closed groups as darknets.

Anonymous P2P

anonymous peer-to-peeranonymousAnonymous peer to peer
Freenet is a popular darknet (friend-to-friend) by default; since version 0.7 it can run as a "opennet" (peer nodes are discovered automatically).
Like conventional P2P networks, anonymous P2P networks can implement either opennet or darknet (often named friend-to-friend) network type.

Crypto-anarchism

crypto-anarchistcryptoanarchistscrypto-anarchists
Subsequently, in 2014, journalist Jamie Bartlett in his book The Dark Net used the term to describe a range of underground and emergent subcultures, including camgirls, cryptoanarchists, darknet drug markets, self harm communities, social media racists, and transhumanists.
Darknet

AllPeers

AllPeers
It used a darknet style of peer-to-peer communication; files and information shared between users are only accessible as long as the users have each other on their respective access lists - their 'trusted private network'.

Deep web

invisible webdark (unused) address-spacedeep
It is also considered part of the Deep Web.
The first conflation of the terms "deep web" and "dark web" based came about in 2009 when the deep web search terminology was discussed alongside illegal activities taking place on the Freenet darknet.

AnoNet

anoNet is a decentralized friend-to-friend network built using VPNs and software BGP routers.
Darknet

Proxy server

proxyproxiesproxy servers
All darknets require specific software installed or network configurations made to access them, such as Tor, which can be accessed via a customised browser from Vidalia (aka the Tor browser bundle), or alternatively via a proxy configured to perform the same function.
Darknet

I2P

.i2pI2P – The Anonymous Network I2P - The Anonymous Network
I2P (Invisible Internet Project) is another overlay network that features a darknet whose sites are called "Eepsites".
Darknet

Computer network

networknetworkingcomputer networking
Zeronet is open source software aimed to build an internet-like computer network of peer-to-peer users of Tor.
A darknet is an overlay network, typically running on the Internet, that is only accessible through specialized software.

Private peer-to-peer

private networkprivate P2P
Private peer-to-peer (P2P)
Darknet

Sneakernet

borrowed diskettesdata courierfile-transfer
Sneakernet
Darknet

Silk Road (marketplace)

Silk RoadThe Silk RoadSilk Road drug website
"Darknet" is often associated with the encrypted part of the Internet called Tor network where illicit trading takes place such as the infamous online drug bazaar called Silk Road.

ARPANET

ARPA networkARPAnet Working GroupArpanet/Darpanet
The term originally described computers on ARPANET that were hidden, programmed to receive messages but not respond to or acknowledge anything, thus remaining invisible, in the dark.An account detailed how the first online transaction related to drugs transpired in 1971 when students of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Stanford University traded marijuana using ARPANET accounts in the former's Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.