Data compression

Comparison of spectrograms of audio in an uncompressed format and several lossy formats. The lossy spectrograms show bandlimiting of higher frequencies, a common technique associated with lossy audio compression.
Solidyne 922: The world's first commercial audio bit compression sound card for PC, 1990
Processing stages of a typical video encoder

Process of encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.

- Data compression
Comparison of spectrograms of audio in an uncompressed format and several lossy formats. The lossy spectrograms show bandlimiting of higher frequencies, a common technique associated with lossy audio compression.

500 related topics

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A picture showing scratches on the readable surface of a CD-R. Music and data CDs are coded using error correcting codes and thus can still be read even if they have minor scratches using error detection and correction.

Information theory

Scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication of digital information.

Scientific study of the quantification, storage, and communication of digital information.

A picture showing scratches on the readable surface of a CD-R. Music and data CDs are coded using error correcting codes and thus can still be read even if they have minor scratches using error detection and correction.

Important sub-fields of information theory include source coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory and information-theoretic security.

A picture showing scratches on the readable surface of a CD-R. Music and data CDs are coded using error correcting codes and thus can still be read even if they have minor scratches using error detection and correction.

Redundancy (information theory)

Ensemble X, and its maximum possible value }} Informally, it is the amount of wasted "space" used to transmit certain data.

Ensemble X, and its maximum possible value }} Informally, it is the amount of wasted "space" used to transmit certain data.

A picture showing scratches on the readable surface of a CD-R. Music and data CDs are coded using error correcting codes and thus can still be read even if they have minor scratches using error detection and correction.

Data compression is a way to reduce or eliminate unwanted redundancy, while forward error correction is a way of adding desired redundancy for purposes of error detection and correction when communicating over a noisy channel of limited capacity.

Some of the different types of data.

Data communication

Transfer and reception of data in the form of a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

Transfer and reception of data in the form of a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.

Some of the different types of data.

It may also be an analog signal such as a phone call or a video signal, digitized into a bit-stream, for example, using pulse-code modulation or more advanced source coding schemes.

Comparison of spectrograms of audio in an uncompressed format and several lossy formats. The lossy spectrograms show bandlimiting of higher frequencies, a common technique associated with lossy audio compression.

Lossless compression

Comparison of spectrograms of audio in an uncompressed format and several lossy formats. The lossy spectrograms show bandlimiting of higher frequencies, a common technique associated with lossy audio compression.

Lossless compression is a class of data compression that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data with no loss of information.

A program in paper tape

Lossy compression

A program in paper tape

In information technology, lossy compression or irreversible compression is the class of data compression methods that uses inexact approximations and partial data discarding to represent the content.

Block Diagram of HEVC

High Efficiency Video Coding

Video compression standard designed as part of the MPEG-H project as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10).

Video compression standard designed as part of the MPEG-H project as a successor to the widely used Advanced Video Coding (AVC, H.264, or MPEG-4 Part 10).

Block Diagram of HEVC
HEVC has 33 intra prediction modes

In comparison to AVC, HEVC offers from 25% to 50% better data compression at the same level of video quality, or substantially improved video quality at the same bit rate.

A humorous image announcing the launch of a Tumblr account for the White House suggests pronouncing GIF with a hard g.

GIF

Bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite and released on 15 June 1987.

Bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite and released on 15 June 1987.

A humorous image announcing the launch of a Tumblr account for the White House suggests pronouncing GIF with a hard g.
An example of a GIF image saved with a web-safe palette and dithered using the Floyd–Steinberg method. Due to the reduced number of colors in the image, there are display issues.
An animated GIF illustrating a technique for displaying more than the typical limit of 256 colors
Sample image (enlarged), actual size 3 pixels wide by 5 high
Bytes Dh to 30Ch in the example define a palette of 256 colors.
A 46×46 uncompressed GIF with 7-bit symbols (128 colors, 8-bit codes). Click on the image for an explanation of the code.
GIF can be used to display animation, as in this image of Newton's cradle.
A GIF animation made of two photos, one morphing into the other
Rotating earth (large).gif

GIF became popular because it used Lempel–Ziv–Welch data compression.

Nasir Ahmed, the inventor of the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which he first proposed in 1972.

Discrete cosine transform

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) expresses a finite sequence of data points in terms of a sum of cosine functions oscillating at different frequencies.

Nasir Ahmed, the inventor of the discrete cosine transform (DCT), which he first proposed in 1972.
Illustration of the implicit even/odd extensions of DCT input data, for N=11 data points (red dots), for the four most common types of DCT (types I-IV).
336x336px
An example showing eight different filters applied to a test image (top left) by multiplying its DCT spectrum (top right) with each filter.
Original size, scaled 10x (nearest neighbor), scaled 10x (bilinear).
Basis functions of the discrete cosine transformation with corresponding coefficients (specific for our image).
 DCT of the image =
.
On the left is the final image. In the middle is the weighted function (multiplied by a coefficient) which is added to the final image. On the right is the current function and corresponding coefficient. Images are scaled (using bilinear interpolation) by factor 10×.

The DCT, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, is a widely used transformation technique in signal processing and data compression.

MPEG logo

Moving Picture Experts Group

MPEG logo
Some well known older (up to 2005) digital media formats and the MPEG standards they use

The Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) is an alliance of working groups established jointly by ISO and IEC that sets standards for media coding, including compression coding of audio, video, graphics, and genomic data; and transmission and file formats for various applications.

Comparison of coding efficiency between popular audio formats

Advanced Audio Coding

Comparison of coding efficiency between popular audio formats

Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is an audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression.