Data integrity

integrityintegrity constraintsconstraintconstraintsintegrity constraintdatabase integrityintegrity protectiontransactional integritydemands on the datadomain integrity
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.wikipedia
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Data quality

qualitydata quality assurancedata quality assessment
It is at times used as a proxy term for data quality, while data validation is a pre-requisite for data integrity.
For companies with significant research efforts, data quality can include developing protocols for research methods, reducing measurement error, bounds checking of data, cross tabulation, modeling and outlier detection, verifying data integrity, etc.

Data validation

validationinput validationvalidate
It is at times used as a proxy term for data quality, while data validation is a pre-requisite for data integrity.
For business applications, data validation can be defined through declarative data integrity rules, or procedure-based business rules.

Checksum

checksumscheck sumcheck-sum
Ensuring physical integrity includes methods such as redundant hardware, an uninterruptible power supply, certain types of RAID arrays, radiation hardened chips, error-correcting memory, use of a clustered file system, using file systems that employ block level checksums such as ZFS, storage arrays that compute parity calculations such as exclusive or or use a cryptographic hash function and even having a watchdog timer on critical subsystems.
This is especially true of cryptographic hash functions, which may be used to detect many data corruption errors and verify overall data integrity; if the computed checksum for the current data input matches the stored value of a previously computed checksum, there is a very high probability the data has not been accidentally altered or corrupted.

Hash function

hashhashinghashes
Computer-induced transcription errors can be detected through hash functions.
This is used for assuring integrity of transmitted data, and is the building block for HMACs, which provide message authentication.

Data

statistical datascientific datadatum
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
Data integrity

Check constraint

constraints constraintconstraints
Common methods of ensuring logical integrity include things such as a check constraints, foreign key constraints, program assertions, and other run-time sanity checks.
A check constraint is a type of integrity constraint in SQL which specifies a requirement that must be met by each row in a database table.

ACID (computer science)

ACIDACID transactionsAtomicity, consistency, isolation, durability
As another example, a database management system might be compliant with the ACID properties, but the RAID controller or hard disk drive's internal write cache might not be.
Consistency ensures that a transaction can only bring the database from one valid state to another, maintaining database invariants: any data written to the database must be valid according to all defined rules, including constraints, cascades, triggers, and any combination thereof.

Database schema

schemarelational schemaschemas
Data integrity often includes checks and correction for invalid data, based on a fixed schema or a predefined set of rules.
The formal definition of a database schema is a set of formulas (sentences) called integrity constraints imposed on a database.

Data corruption

corruptedcorruptionsilent data corruption
Data integrity is the opposite of data corruption.
Computer, transmission, and storage systems use a number of measures to provide end-to-end data integrity, or lack of errors.

Foreign key

Foreignforeign key constraintforeign key references
Common methods of ensuring logical integrity include things such as a check constraints, foreign key constraints, program assertions, and other run-time sanity checks.
constraint.

Message authentication

authenticitydata origin authenticationauthenticate a message
Message authentication
In information security, message authentication or data origin authentication is a property that a message has not been modified while in transit (data integrity) and that the receiving party can verify the source of the message.

Entity integrity

This includes topics such as referential integrity and entity integrity in a relational database or correctly ignoring impossible sensor data in robotic systems.
Domain integrity

Database

database management systemdatabasesdatabase systems
Data integrity is normally enforced in a database system by a series of integrity constraints or rules.
Database transactions can be used to introduce some level of fault tolerance and data integrity after recovery from a crash.

Information lifecycle management

ILMinformation life cyclelife-cycle
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.

Computing

computer technologycomputercomputational
The term is broad in scope and may have widely different meanings depending on the specific context even under the same general umbrella of computing.

Data security

securitydata protectiondata-level security
Data integrity is not to be confused with data security, the discipline of protecting data from unauthorized parties.

Human error

Engineer errorerrorhuman
Any unintended changes to data as the result of a storage, retrieval or processing operation, including malicious intent, unexpected hardware failure, and human error, is failure of data integrity.

Safety-critical system

safety-criticallife-critical systemsafety critical
Depending on the data involved this could manifest itself as benign as a single pixel in an image appearing a different color than was originally recorded, to the loss of vacation pictures or a business-critical database, to even catastrophic loss of human life in a life-critical system.

Electromechanics

electromechanicalelectro-mechanicalelectromechanical engineering
Challenges with physical integrity may include electromechanical faults, design flaws, material fatigue, corrosion, power outages, natural disasters, acts of war and terrorism, and other special environmental hazards such as ionizing radiation, extreme temperatures, pressures and g-forces.

Fatigue (material)

fatiguemetal fatiguefatigue failure
Challenges with physical integrity may include electromechanical faults, design flaws, material fatigue, corrosion, power outages, natural disasters, acts of war and terrorism, and other special environmental hazards such as ionizing radiation, extreme temperatures, pressures and g-forces.

Corrosion

corrosion resistancecorrodecorrosive
Challenges with physical integrity may include electromechanical faults, design flaws, material fatigue, corrosion, power outages, natural disasters, acts of war and terrorism, and other special environmental hazards such as ionizing radiation, extreme temperatures, pressures and g-forces.

G-force

gg-forcesGs
Challenges with physical integrity may include electromechanical faults, design flaws, material fatigue, corrosion, power outages, natural disasters, acts of war and terrorism, and other special environmental hazards such as ionizing radiation, extreme temperatures, pressures and g-forces.

Redundancy (engineering)

redundancyredundantredundancies
Ensuring physical integrity includes methods such as redundant hardware, an uninterruptible power supply, certain types of RAID arrays, radiation hardened chips, error-correcting memory, use of a clustered file system, using file systems that employ block level checksums such as ZFS, storage arrays that compute parity calculations such as exclusive or or use a cryptographic hash function and even having a watchdog timer on critical subsystems.

Uninterruptible power supply

UPSuninterruptible power suppliesbattery backup
Ensuring physical integrity includes methods such as redundant hardware, an uninterruptible power supply, certain types of RAID arrays, radiation hardened chips, error-correcting memory, use of a clustered file system, using file systems that employ block level checksums such as ZFS, storage arrays that compute parity calculations such as exclusive or or use a cryptographic hash function and even having a watchdog timer on critical subsystems.

RAID

redundant array of independent disksRAID arraysoftware RAID
Ensuring physical integrity includes methods such as redundant hardware, an uninterruptible power supply, certain types of RAID arrays, radiation hardened chips, error-correcting memory, use of a clustered file system, using file systems that employ block level checksums such as ZFS, storage arrays that compute parity calculations such as exclusive or or use a cryptographic hash function and even having a watchdog timer on critical subsystems.