Database

database management systemdatabasesdatabase systemsdatabase systemdatabase managementdatabase management systemsDBMSdata basedatabase softwarecomputer database
A database is an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system.wikipedia
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Relational database

relational databasesrelationaldatabase constraints
Relational databases became dominant in the 1980s. The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, and post-relational.
A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.

Database model

data design modeldatabasedata model
Computer scientists may classify database-management systems according to the database models that they support.
A database model is a type of data model that determines the logical structure of a database and fundamentally determines in which manner data can be stored, organized and manipulated.

NoSQL

structured storagekey/value storenon-relational
In the 2000s, non-relational databases became popular, referred to as NoSQL because they use different query languages. The next generation of post-relational databases in the late 2000s became known as NoSQL databases, introducing fast key-value stores and document-oriented databases.
A NoSQL (originally referring to "non SQL" or "non relational") database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.

Table (database)

tabletablesdatabase table
These model data as rows and columns in a series of tables, and the vast majority use SQL for writing and querying data.
A table is a collection of related data held in a table format within a database.

Database application

DBMSs are found at the heart of most database applications.
A database application is a computer program whose primary purpose is entering and retrieving information from a computerized database.

Relational model

relationalrelational data modelrelationships
The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links.
The relational model (RM) for database management is an approach to managing data using a structure and language consistent with first-order predicate logic, first described in 1969 by English computer scientist Edgar F. Codd, where all data is represented in terms of tuples, grouped into relations.

Navigational database

navigationalnavigation data storagenavigational database management system
The development of database technology can be divided into three eras based on data model or structure: navigational, SQL/relational, and post-relational.
A navigational database is a type of database in which records or objects are found primarily by following references from other objects.

Spreadsheet

spreadsheetscellspreadsheet program
Outside the world of professional information technology, the term database is often used to refer to any collection of related data (such as a spreadsheet or a card index) as size and usage requirements typically necessitate use of a database management system.
Spreadsheets share many principles and traits of databases, but spreadsheets and databases are not the same thing.

Object-relational database

object-relational database management systemobject-relationalORDBMS
Object databases were developed in the 1980s to overcome the inconvenience of object-relational impedance mismatch, which led to the coining of the term "post-relational" and also the development of hybrid object-relational databases.
An object-relational database (ORD), or object-relational database management system (ORDBMS), is a database management system (DBMS) similar to a relational database, but with an object-oriented database model: objects, classes and inheritance are directly supported in database schemas and in the query language.

Edgar F. Codd

E. F. CoddCoddE.F. Codd
The relational model, first proposed in 1970 by Edgar F. Codd, departed from this tradition by insisting that applications should search for data by content, rather than by following links.
Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (19 August 1923 – 18 April 2003) was an English computer scientist who, while working for IBM, invented the relational model for database management, the theoretical basis for relational databases and relational database management systems.

NewSQL

NewSQL databases
A competing "next generation" known as NewSQL databases attempted new implementations that retained the relational/SQL model while aiming to match the high performance of NoSQL compared to commercially available relational DBMSs.
NewSQL is a class of modern relational database management systems that seek to provide the same scalable performance of NoSQL systems for online transaction processing (OLTP) read-write workloads while still maintaining the ACID guarantees of a traditional database system.

Charles Bachman

Bachman Information SystemsC. W. BachmanCharles W. Bachman
Interest in a standard began to grow, and Charles Bachman, author of one such product, the Integrated Data Store (IDS), founded the "Database Task Group" within CODASYL, the group responsible for the creation and standardization of COBOL.
He was particularly known for his work in the early development of database management systems.

IBM Db2 Family

DB2IBM DB2pureQuery
By the early 1990s, however, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, and they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS.
The name DB2, or IBM Database 2, was first given to the Database Management System or DBMS in 1983 when IBM released DB2 on its MVS mainframe platform.

Key-value database

key-value storekey-valuekey/value
The next generation of post-relational databases in the late 2000s became known as NoSQL databases, introducing fast key-value stores and document-oriented databases.
These records are stored and retrieved using a key that uniquely identifies the record, and is used to quickly find the data within the database.

B-tree

B+ treeB+ treesB-
Later systems added B-trees to provide alternate access paths.
It is commonly used in databases and file systems.

Integrated Data Store

IDS
Interest in a standard began to grow, and Charles Bachman, author of one such product, the Integrated Data Store (IDS), founded the "Database Task Group" within CODASYL, the group responsible for the creation and standardization of COBOL.
Integrated Data Store (IDS) was an early network database management system largely used by industry, known for its high performance.

IBM System R

System RIBM's System R
INGRES was similar to System R in a number of ways, including the use of a "language" for data access, known as QUEL.
IBM System R is a database system built as a research project at IBM's San Jose Research Laboratory beginning in 1974.

End user

end-userend-usersend users
The database management system (DBMS) is the software that interacts with end users, applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze the data.
Libraries have had to undergo many changes in order to cope, including training existing librarians in Web 2.0 and database skills and hiring IT and software experts.

Data access

accessaccessible
INGRES was similar to System R in a number of ways, including the use of a "language" for data access, known as QUEL.
Data access typically refers to software and activities related to storing, retrieving, or acting on data housed in a database or other repository.

Primary key

alternate keydefining database keykey
In the relational model, some bit of information was used as a "key", uniquely defining a particular record.
In the relational model of databases, a primary key is a specific choice of a minimal set of attributes (columns) that uniquely specify a tuple (row) in a relation (table).

Microsoft SQL Server

SQL ServerMS SQLSQL Server 2005
By the early 1990s, however, relational systems dominated in all large-scale data processing applications, and they remain dominant: IBM DB2, Oracle, MySQL, and Microsoft SQL Server are the most searched DBMS.
Data storage is a database, which is a collection of tables with typed columns.

Hierarchical database model

hierarchical databasehierarchical modelhierarchical
The two main early navigational data models were the hierarchical model and the CODASYL model (network model)
The hierarchical structure was developed by IBM in the 1960s, and used in early mainframe DBMS.

Turing Award

A.M. Turing AwardACM Turing AwardACM A.M. Turing Award
Both concepts later became known as navigational databases due to the way data was accessed, and Bachman's 1973 Turing Award presentation was The Programmer as Navigator.

Server (computing)

serverserversserver computer
Physically, database servers are dedicated computers that hold the actual databases and run only the DBMS and related software.

DBase

dBase IIdBase IIIDBF
The new computers empowered their users with spreadsheets like Lotus 1-2-3 and database software like dBASE.
dBase (also stylized dBASE) was one of the first database management systems for microcomputers, and the most successful in its day.