Database abstraction layer

DALdatabase abstractiondatabase abstraction librarydatabase access is entirely abstracteddatabase layerDBAL
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.wikipedia
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Application programming interface

APIAPIsapplication programming interfaces
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

Database

database management systemdatabasesDBMS
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

Microsoft SQL Server

SQL ServerMS SQLMS SQL Server
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

IBM Db2 Family

DB2IBM DB2pureQuery
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

MySQL

M'''ySQLMySQL 4.1MySQL 4.x
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

PostgreSQL

PostgresPgSQLPgAdmin
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

Oracle Database

OracleOracle RDBMSOracle 10g
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

SQLite

SQLite3SQLite 3SQLite4
A database abstraction layer (DBAL or DAL) is an application programming interface which unifies the communication between a computer application and databases such as SQL Server, DB2, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle or SQLite.

Query language

querydatabase query languageData query language
Their advantages are most often speed and flexibility because they are not tied to a specific query language (subset) and only have to implement a thin layer to reach their goal.

SQL

Structured Query LanguageSQL databaseSQL Databases
As all SQL dialects are similar to one another, application developers can use all the language features, possibly providing configurable elements for database-specific cases, such as typically user-IDs and credentials.

Object-oriented programming

object-orientedobject orientedobject-oriented programming language
Popular use for database abstraction layers are among object-oriented programming languages, which are similar to API-level abstraction layers.

Object (computer science)

objectobjectsdata object
In an object-oriented language like C++ or Java, a database can be represented through an object, whose methods and members (or the equivalent thereof in other programming languages) represent various functionalities of the database.

Open Database Connectivity

ODBCODBC driverDatabase driver
An example of a database abstraction layer on the language level would be ODBC that is a platform-independent implementation of a database abstraction layer.

Device driver

driverdriversdevice drivers
The user installs specific driver software, through which ODBC can communicate with a database or set of databases.

GNOME

GNOME 3GNOME 2GNOME desktop environment
Finally, large projects may develop their own libraries, such as, for example, libgda for GNOME.

Doctrine (PHP)

DoctrineDoctrine2Doctrine (database abstraction)
Its prize projects are an object-relational mapper (ORM) and the database abstraction layer it is built on top of.

ADOdb Lite

ADOdb Lite is a very small, fast ADOdb-compatible database abstraction library written in PHP.

TYPO3

NEOSKasper SkårhøjTYPO3 Neos
It uses PHP 5.3 or newer and any relational database supported by the TYPO3 DBAL including MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL, and others.

Skipper (computer software)

Skipper
Skipper is a visualization tool and code/schema generator for PHP ORM frameworks like Doctrine2, Doctrine, Propel, and CakePHP, which are used to create database abstraction layer.