Datu

datuschiefdatadattodatu (chieftains)Datu Edu GambankadatuanMoro Chieftain‘Abdul Muttalib
Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs ) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago.wikipedia
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Tondo (historical polity)

TondoTondo DynastyTundun
In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization. The term Paramount Datu or Paramount ruler is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities (see: Barangay state) or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Confederation of Madja-as in Panay, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
Politically, Tondo was made up of several social groupings, traditionally referred to by historians as Barangays, which were led by Datus.

Paramount rulers in early Philippine history

Paramount datuparamount rulerparamount rulers
In such cases, datus of these barangays would then select the most senior or most respected among them to serve as what scolars call a "paramount leader, or "paramount datu." The titles used by such paramount datu changed from case to case, but some of the most prominent examples were: Sultan in the most Islamized areas of Mindanao; Lakan among the Tagalog people; Thimuay among the Subanen people; Rajah in polities which traded extensively with Indonesia and Malaysia; or simply Datu in some areas of Mindanao and the Visayas.
The term Paramount Ruler, or sometimes Paramount Datu, is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.

Luzon

Luzon Islandnorthern LuzonNorth Luzon
Together with Lakan (Luzon), Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty.
These kingdoms were based on leases between village rulers (Datu) and landlords (Lakan) or Rajahs, to whom tributes and taxes were levied.

Barangay state

barangayancient barangaybarangays
The term Paramount Datu or Paramount ruler is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities (see: Barangay state) or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Confederation of Madja-as in Panay, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
These sociopolitical units were sometimes also referred to as barangay states, but are more properly referred to using the technical term "polity", rather than "state", so they are usually simply called "barangays", but evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as a type of "city states" ruled by datus, rajahs and lakans and sultans.

Sultanate of Sulu

SuluSultan of SuluSulu Sultanate
In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization.
The descendants of Tuan May did not assume the title tuan, instead, they started to use datu.

Lakan

Lakambinilakanslakán
In such cases, datus of these barangays would then select the most senior or most respected among them to serve as what scolars call a "paramount leader, or "paramount datu." The titles used by such paramount datu changed from case to case, but some of the most prominent examples were: Sultan in the most Islamized areas of Mindanao; Lakan among the Tagalog people; Thimuay among the Subanen people; Rajah in polities which traded extensively with Indonesia and Malaysia; or simply Datu in some areas of Mindanao and the Visayas. Together with Lakan (Luzon), Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty. In this society, the term Datu or Lakan, or Apo refers to the chief, but the noble class (to which the Datu belonged, or could come from) was the Maginoo Class.
Belonging to the Maginoo social class, the lakan was democratically selected by other ruling Datus from among themselves, to serve as "pangulo" (head).

Datuk

DatoDato’Datu
The word Datu, originally from Sanskrit Devata, via a cognate of the Malay terms Dato' or Datuk, which is one of many Malay styles and titles in Malaysia, and to the Fijian chiefly title of Ratu
Its variant is Dato and its equivalent is Datu in the Philippines.

Manila

Manila, PhilippinesCity of ManilaManilla
The term Paramount Datu or Paramount ruler is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities (see: Barangay state) or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Confederation of Madja-as in Panay, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
López de Legazpi had the local royalty executed or exiled after the failure of the Tondo Conspiracy, a plot wherein an alliance between datus, rajahs, Japanese merchants and the Sultanate of Brunei would band together to execute the Spaniards, along with their Latin American recruits and Visayan allies.

Visayas

VisayanVisayan IslandsVisayan Island
The title is still used today, especially in Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan, but it was used much more extensively in early Philippine history, particularly in the regions of Central and Southern Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao.
Historical documents written in 1907 by Visayan historian Pedro Alcántara Monteclaro in his book Maragtas tell the story of the ten leaders (Datus) who escaped from the tyranny of Rajah Makatunaw from Borneo and came to the islands of Panay.

History of the Philippines (900–1521)

early Philippine historypre-colonialpre-Hispanic
The term Paramount Datu or Paramount ruler is a term applied by historians to describe the highest ranking political authorities in the largest lowland polities (see: Barangay state) or inter-polity alliance groups in early Philippine history, most notably those in Maynila, Tondo, Confederation of Madja-as in Panay, Pangasinan, Cebu, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, and Sulu.
Fragmented ethnic groups established several polities formed by the assimilation of several small political units known as barangay each headed by a Datu, who was then answerable to a Rajah or a Lakan, who headed the city state.

Kedatuan of Dapitan

Bohol
In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization.
Datu

Timawa

Mangayawcommon peoplesraids
These settlements were characterized by a three-tier social structure, which, while slightly different between different cultures and polities, generally included a slave class (alipin/oripun), a class of commoners (timawa), and at the apex, an aristocratic or "noble" class.
They were originally descendants or illegitimate children of the datu by commoner wives or uripon concubines, or the illegitimate children of the binokot princesses.

Rajahnate of Butuan

ButuanButuanonsDewata
In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization.
Another alternative is that the name derives from Datu Bantuan, possibly a former datu of the region.

Nobility

noblemannoblenobles
These settlements were characterized by a three-tier social structure, which, while slightly different between different cultures and polities, generally included a slave class (alipin/oripun), a class of commoners (timawa), and at the apex, an aristocratic or "noble" class.
Since ancient times, Datu was the common title of a chief or monarch of the many pre-colonial principalities and sovereign dominions throughout the isles; in some areas the term Apo was also used.

Subanon people

SubanonSubanenSubanons
In such cases, datus of these barangays would then select the most senior or most respected among them to serve as what scolars call a "paramount leader, or "paramount datu." The titles used by such paramount datu changed from case to case, but some of the most prominent examples were: Sultan in the most Islamized areas of Mindanao; Lakan among the Tagalog people; Thimuay among the Subanen people; Rajah in polities which traded extensively with Indonesia and Malaysia; or simply Datu in some areas of Mindanao and the Visayas.
The title of datu was used occasionally in the past during the Sultanate.

Rajahnate of Maynila

MaynilaManilaSelurong
In large coastal polities such as those in Maynila, Tondo, Pangasinan, Cebu, Panay, Bohol, Butuan, Cotabato, Lanao, and Sulu, several datus brought their loyalty-groups, referred to as "barangays" or "dulohan", into compact settlements which allowed greater degrees of cooperation and economic specialization.
By 1570, Maynila was under the rule of two paramount rulers (the more senior Rajah Matanda and the younger Rajah Sulayman), who in turn had several lower-ranked rulers ("Datu") under them.

Imperial, royal and noble ranks

ranknoble titlehigh nobility
This much-broader popular conception of monarchy, built on Filipino experiences of "great men" being socially separate from ordinary people rather than the hierarchical technicalities of monarchies in the political sense, persists today.
Datu in the Visayas and Mindanao which, together with the term Raja ( in the Rajahnate of Cebu and Kingdom of Maynila) and Lakan (title widely used on the island of Luzon), are the Filipino equivalents of "sovereign prince" and thus, glossed as "king". (Cf. also Principalía — the hispanized and Christianized Datu class during the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines.) ''Esta institucion (Cabecería de Barangay), mucho más antigua que la sujecion de las islas al Gobierno, ha merecido siempre las mayores atencion. En un principio eran las cabecerías hereditarias, y constituian la verdadera hidalguía del país; mas del dia, si bien en algunas provincias todavía se tramiten por sucesion hereditaria, las hay tambien eleccion, particularmente en las provincias más inmediatas á Manila, en donde han perdido su prestigio y son una verdadera carga. En las provincias distantes todavía se hacen respetar, y allí es precisamente en donde la autoridad tiene ménos que hacer, y el órden se conserva sin necesidad de medidas coercitivas; porque todavía existe en ellas el gobierno patriarcal, por el gran respeto que la plebe conserva aún á lo que llaman aquí principalía. (Translation: ''This institution (Cabecera de Barangay), much older than the fastening of the islands to the Government, has always deserved the most attention. In the beginning they were the hereditary heads, and they constituted the true chivalry of the country; but of the day, although in some provinces they are still transacted by hereditary succession, there are also elections, particularly in the provinces closest to Manila, where they have lost their prestige and are a real burden. In the distant provinces they are still enforced, and that is precisely where authority has less to do, and the order is preserved without the need for coercive measures; because the patriarchal government still exists in them, because of the great respect that the plebs still retain for what they call here principalía.FERRANDO.) FERRANDO, Fr Juan & FONSECA OSA, Fr Joaquin (1870–1872). Historia de los PP. Dominicos en las Islas Filipinas y en las Misiones del Japon, China, Tung-kin y Formosa (Vol. 1 of 6 vols) (in Spanish). Madrid: Imprenta y esteriotipia de M Rivadeneyra. OCLC 9362749.

Sultan

sultanateSulṭānsultans
In such cases, datus of these barangays would then select the most senior or most respected among them to serve as what scolars call a "paramount leader, or "paramount datu." The titles used by such paramount datu changed from case to case, but some of the most prominent examples were: Sultan in the most Islamized areas of Mindanao; Lakan among the Tagalog people; Thimuay among the Subanen people; Rajah in polities which traded extensively with Indonesia and Malaysia; or simply Datu in some areas of Mindanao and the Visayas. Together with Lakan (Luzon), Apo in Central and Northern Luzon, Sultan and Rajah, they are titles used for native royalty.
Datu

Maginoo

tumaoGatelites
In this society, the term Datu or Lakan, or Apo refers to the chief, but the noble class (to which the Datu belonged, or could come from) was the Maginoo Class.
The tumao consisted of blood relatives of the datu (community leader) untainted by slavery, servitude, or witchcraft.

Principalía

principaliaprincipales[8]
The Filipino royals and nobles formed part of the exclusive, and elite ruling class, called the Principalía (Noble Class) of the Philippines.
The principales (members of the principalía) traced their origin from the precolonial royal and noble class of Datu of the established kingdoms, rajahnates, confederacies, and principalities, as well as the lordships of the smaller ancient social units called barangays in Visayas, Luzon, and Mindanao.

Cabeza de Barangay

cabezas de barangaybarangay captainBrgy. Chairman
For example, the Gobernadorcillos (elected leader of the Cabezas de Barangay or the Christianized Datus) and Filipino officials of justice received the greatest consideration from the Spanish Crown officials.
The post was inherited from the first datus who became cabezas de barangay when the many independent barangays became tributary vassals of the Spanish Crown.

William Henry Scott (historian)

William Henry ScottWilliam ScottW.H. Scott
In the contemporary era of critical scholarly analysis, the more prominent such works include the studies of anthropologist F. Landa Jocano and historian-historiographer William Henry Scott.
*Datu

Dynasty

dynasticroyal housedynasties
Because most Filipinos, even during precolonial times, related with political power structures as outsiders, this new interpretation of "royalty" was accepted in the broadest sense, and the distinction between monarchy as a political structure vis a vis membership in a hereditary noble line or dynasty, was lost.
The Datu Puti Lineage (Ruled the defunct Confederation of Madya-as) (13th century – 1565)

Maharlika

mahárlikaelite individuals
The warrior class in the Tagalog society was present only in Laguna, and they were called the Maharlika Class.
Like the Timawa, they were free vassals of their Datu who were exempt from taxes and tribute but were required to provide military service.

Philippines

🇵🇭FilipinoPhilippine
The fons honorum (source of honour) in the modern Philippine state is the sovereign Filipino people, who are equal in dignity under a democratic form of government.
Then, various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs, sultans and lakans.