David and Jonathan

JonathanDavidclose personal friendshipDavid & JonathanDavid and his friendship with JonathanJonathan and Davidloves Davidsome commentators view as romanticstrong friendship
David (Hebrew: ; Dāwīḏ or David) and Jonathan (Hebrew: ; Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan) were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, who formed a covenant recorded in the books of Samuel.wikipedia
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David

King DavidDavid and GoliathDavidic
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.
He becomes a favorite of King Saul and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan.

Jonathan (1 Samuel)

JonathanJonathasYehonatan
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.
The story of David and Jonathan is introduced in chapter 18, where it says that "Jonathan became one in spirit with David, and he loved him as himself" (verse 1). Jonathan helps David escape from Saul, and asks him to show kindness to his family (1 Samuel 20:14–15); biblical scholar Joyce Baldwin suggests that this indicates that Jonathan recognised David as the future king.

Books of Samuel

1 Samuel2 SamuelSamuel
David (Hebrew: ; Dāwīḏ or David) and Jonathan (Hebrew: ; Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan) were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, who formed a covenant recorded in the books of Samuel. The relationship between David and Jonathan is mainly covered in the Hebrew Bible Book of Samuel.
Republican source: a source with an anti-monarchial bias. This source first describes Samuel as decisively ridding the people of the Philistines, and begrudgingly appointing an individual chosen by God to be king, namely Saul. David is described as someone renowned for his skill at playing the harp, and consequently summoned to Saul's court to calm his moods. Saul's son Jonathan becomes friends with David, which some commentators view as romantic, and later acts as his protector against Saul's more violent intentions. At a later point, having been deserted by God on the eve of battle, Saul consults a medium at Endor, only to be condemned for doing so by Samuel's ghost, and told he and his sons will be killed. David is heartbroken on discovering the death of Jonathan, tearing his clothes as a gesture of grief.

Piers Gaveston, 1st Earl of Cornwall

Piers GavestonGavestonPiers de Gaveston
And thus, King Edward II wept for his dead lover Piers Gaveston as: "... David had mourned for Jonathan.".
This concept had a Biblical precedent in the traditionalist, platonic interpretation of the relationship between David and Jonathan, and also existed in the Middle Ages, as exemplified in The Song of Roland, the story of Roland and Olivier.

Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-language
David (Hebrew: ; Dāwīḏ or David) and Jonathan (Hebrew: ; Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan) were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, who formed a covenant recorded in the books of Samuel.

History of ancient Israel and Judah

ancient IsraelIsraelbiblical times
David (Hebrew: ; Dāwīḏ or David) and Jonathan (Hebrew: ; Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan) were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, who formed a covenant recorded in the books of Samuel.

Covenant (historical)

covenanthistorical senseconcord
David (Hebrew: ; Dāwīḏ or David) and Jonathan (Hebrew: ; Yəhōnāṯān or Yehonatan) were heroic figures of the Kingdom of Israel, who formed a covenant recorded in the books of Samuel.

Saul

King Saulbattle of GilboaKing Saul of Israel
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy)

Kingdom of IsraelIsraelUnited Kingdom of Israel
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Tribe of Benjamin

BenjaminBenjamiteBenjamites
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Jesse

Tree of Jesse
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Bethlehem

Bethlehem DistrictBayt Laḥmbelleem
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Tribe of Judah

JudahTribes of Judahhouse of Judah
Jonathan was the son of Saul, king of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, and David was the son of Jesse of Bethlehem, of the tribe of Judah, and Jonathan's presumed rival for the crown.

Mephibosheth

The covenant the two men had formed eventually led to David, after Jonathan's death, graciously seating Jonathan's son Mephibosheth at his own royal table instead of eradicating the former king Saul's line.

Platonic love

platonicplatonic relationshipplatonically
The traditional and mainstream religious interpretation of the relationship has been one of platonic love and an example of homosociality.

Homosociality

homosocialhomosocial culturehomosocially-close
The traditional and mainstream religious interpretation of the relationship has been one of platonic love and an example of homosociality.

Romance (love)

Romanceromanticromantic love
Some later Medieval and Renaissance literature drew upon the story to underline strong personal friendships between men, some of which involved romantic love and could be described as romantic relationships.

Hebrew Bible

biblicalBibleHebrew
The relationship between David and Jonathan is mainly covered in the Hebrew Bible Book of Samuel.

Mount Gilboa

GilboaGilboa mountainsin the book of Samuel
Jonathan, however, is slain on Mt. Gilboa along with his two brothers Abinadab and Malchi-shua, and there Saul commits suicide.

List of minor Old Testament figures, A–K

AdahHobabBecher
Jonathan, however, is slain on Mt. Gilboa along with his two brothers Abinadab and Malchi-shua, and there Saul commits suicide.

List of minor Old Testament figures, L–Z

ZillahRoshNer
Jonathan, however, is slain on Mt. Gilboa along with his two brothers Abinadab and Malchi-shua, and there Saul commits suicide.

Mishnah

MishnaicMishnamishnayot
"The sages characterized the relationship between Jonathan and David in the following Mishnah: “Whenever love depends on some selfish end, when the end passes away, the love passes away; but if it does not depend on some selfish end, it will never pass away. Which love depended on a selfish end? This was the love of Amnon and Tamar. And which did not depend on a selfish end? This was the love of David and Jonathan. (Avot 5:15)"

Christianity

ChristianChristiansChristian faith
A platonic interpretation for the relationship between David and Jonathan has been the mainstream view found in biblical exegesis, as led by Christian writers.

Physical intimacy

physicalphysically intimate actskinship
The books of Samuel do not actually document physical intimacy between the two characters aside from "kissing," while the euphemisms the Bible uses for sexual relations are missing, and nothing indicates that David and Jonathan slept together.

Heterosexuality

heterosexualstraightheterosexuals
Neither of the men is described as having problems in their heterosexual married life.