Davy lamp

miner's lampminer's safety lampDavyDavy safety lampminers' lampDavy miners lampDavy's lamphis safety lampminers lampminers lamps
The Davy lamp is a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy.wikipedia
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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
The Davy lamp is a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy.
He also invented the Davy lamp and a very early form of arc lamp.

Firedamp

fire dampfire-dampmine gas
It was created for use in coal mines, to reduce the danger of explosions due to the presence of methane and other flammable gases, called firedamp or minedamp. A month before Davy presented his design to the Royal Society, Stephenson demonstrated his own lamp to two witnesses by taking it down Killingworth Colliery and holding it in front of a fissure from which firedamp was issuing.
It caused many deaths in coal mines before the invention of the Geordie lamp and Davy lamp.

Safety lamp

safety lampsClannyClanny lamps
The Davy lamp is a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented in 1815 by Sir Humphry Davy.
Within months of Clanny's demonstration of his first lamp, two improved designs had been announced: one by George Stephenson, which later became the Geordie lamp, and the Davy lamp, invented by Sir Humphry Davy.

North East England

North EastNorth East of Englandnorth-east
The Stephenson lamp was used almost exclusively in North East England, whereas the Davy lamp was used everywhere else.
Other mining developments from this region include water level and ventilation techniques introduced by John Buddle who also helped to introduce the miner's safety lamp which was invented here by Stephenson and Davy.

Flame arrester

flame arrestorflame trapflame arrestors
The screen acts as a flame arrestor; air (and any firedamp present) can pass through the mesh freely enough to support combustion, but the holes are too fine to allow a flame to propagate through them and ignite any firedamp outside the mesh.
In a coal mine containing highly explosive coal dust or methane, the wire mesh of a Davy lamp must be very tightly spaced.

John Buddle

John Buddle, senior
For example, in 1835, 102 men and boys were killed by a firedamp explosion in a Wallsend colliery working the Bensham seam, described at the subsequent inquest by John Buddle as "a dangerous seam, which required the utmost care in keeping in a working state", which could only be worked with the Davy lamp.
He had a major influence on the development of the Northern Coalfield in the first half of the 19th century, contributing to the safety of mining coal by innovations such as the introduction of the Davy Lamp, the keeping of records of ventilation, and the prevention of flooding.

Geordie lamp

safety lampGeordie safety lampsminers' safety lamp
For his invention Davy was given £2,000 worth of silver (the money being raised by public subscription), whilst Stephenson was accused of stealing the idea from Davy, because the fully developed 'Geordie lamp' had not been demonstrated by Stephenson until after Davy had presented his paper at the Royal Society, and (it was held) previous versions had not actually been safe.
Although controversy arose between Stephenson's design and the Davy lamp (invented by Humphry Davy in the same year), Stephenson's original design worked on significantly different principles from Davy's final design.

Killingworth

Killingworth CollieryKillingworth bus station
A month before Davy presented his design to the Royal Society, Stephenson demonstrated his own lamp to two witnesses by taking it down Killingworth Colliery and holding it in front of a fissure from which firedamp was issuing.
Known as the Geordie lamp it was to be widely used in the North-east in place of the Davy lamp.

Stadium of Light

A42,000-seat stadiumaway
A replica of a Davy lamp is located in front of the ticket office at the Stadium of Light (Sunderland AFC) which is built on a former coal mine.
A Davy lamp monument stands at the entrance to reflect the coal mining industry that brought prosperity to the town.

Asphyxiant gas

asphyxiantasphyxiantsasphyxiant or toxic gas
Miners could place the safety lamp close to the ground to detect gases, such as carbon dioxide, that are denser than air and so could collect in depressions in the mine; if the mine air was oxygen-poor (asphyxiant gas), the lamp flame would be extinguished (black damp or chokedamp).
While canaries were typically used to detect carbon monoxide, tools such as the Davy lamp and the Geordie lamp were useful for detecting methane and carbon dioxide, two asphyxiant gases.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Miners could place the safety lamp close to the ground to detect gases, such as carbon dioxide, that are denser than air and so could collect in depressions in the mine; if the mine air was oxygen-poor (asphyxiant gas), the lamp flame would be extinguished (black damp or chokedamp).
The Davy lamp could also detect high levels of blackdamp (which sinks, and collects near the floor) by burning less brightly, while methane, another suffocating gas and explosion risk, would make the lamp burn more brightly.

Eccles, Greater Manchester

EcclesEccles, LancashireMunicipal Borough of Eccles
Lamps are still made in Eccles, Greater Manchester; in Aberdare, South Wales; and in Kolkata, India.
It was supplied to Eccles Corporation by a local firm, the Protector Lamp and Lighting Co., also known for manufacturing Miners' Safety Lamps.

Candle wick

wickwicksbaati
It consists of a wick lamp with the flame enclosed inside a mesh screen.

Coal mining

coal minecollierycoal miner
It was created for use in coal mines, to reduce the danger of explosions due to the presence of methane and other flammable gases, called firedamp or minedamp.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
It was created for use in coal mines, to reduce the danger of explosions due to the presence of methane and other flammable gases, called firedamp or minedamp.

Damp (mining)

coal dampdampDamps
It was created for use in coal mines, to reduce the danger of explosions due to the presence of methane and other flammable gases, called firedamp or minedamp.

William Reid Clanny

Clanny safety lamp
Davy's invention was preceded by that of William Reid Clanny, an Irish doctor at Bishopwearmouth, who had read a paper to the Royal Society in May 1813.

Bishopwearmouth

Bishop WearmouthBishopswearmouthBishop-Wearmouth
Davy's invention was preceded by that of William Reid Clanny, an Irish doctor at Bishopwearmouth, who had read a paper to the Royal Society in May 1813.

Royal Society

FRSRoyal Society of LondonThe Royal Society
Davy's invention was preceded by that of William Reid Clanny, an Irish doctor at Bishopwearmouth, who had read a paper to the Royal Society in May 1813.

Royal Society of Arts

Society of ArtsFRSARoyal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce
The more cumbersome Clanny safety lamp was successfully tested at Herrington Mill, and he won medals, from the Royal Society of Arts.

George Stephenson

StephensonGeorgeengineer
Despite his lack of scientific knowledge, engine-wright George Stephenson devised a lamp in which the air entered via tiny holes, through which the flames of the lamp could not pass.

Hebburn

Hebburn-on-TyneHebburn on TyneHebburn Colliery
The first trial of a Davy lamp with a wire sieve was at Hebburn Colliery on 9 January 1816.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of CommonsBritish House of CommonsCommons
In 1833, a House of Commons committee found that Stephenson had equal claim to having invented the safety lamp.

Blackdamp

black dampchokedampchoke damp
Miners could place the safety lamp close to the ground to detect gases, such as carbon dioxide, that are denser than air and so could collect in depressions in the mine; if the mine air was oxygen-poor (asphyxiant gas), the lamp flame would be extinguished (black damp or chokedamp).

Mines and Collieries Act 1842

Mines Act of 1842Mines and Collieries ActMines Act 1842
After two accidents in two years (1838–9) in Cumberland pits, both caused by safety checks being carried out by the light of a naked flame, the Royal Commission on Children's Employment commented both on the failure to learn from the first accident, and on the "further absurdity" of "carrying a Davy lamp in one hand for the sake of safety, and a naked lighted candle in the other, as if for the sake of danger. Beyond this there can be no conceivable thoughtlessness and folly; and when such management is allowed in the mine of two of the most opulent coal-proprietors in the kingdom, we cease to wonder at anything that may take place in mines worked by men equally without capital and science"