Dayton Project

DELMARsecret operationstop-secret lab
The Dayton Project was a research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.wikipedia
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Dayton, Ohio

DaytonDayton, OHDayton area
Work took place at several sites in and around Dayton, Ohio.
Like other cities across the country, Dayton was heavily involved in the war effort during World War II. Several locations around the city hosted the Dayton Project, a branch of the larger Manhattan Project, to develop polonium triggers used in early atomic bombs.

Charles Allen Thomas

Charles A. ThomasCharles Thomas
The Dayton Project began in 1943 when Monsanto's Charles Allen Thomas was recruited by the Manhattan Project to coordinate the plutonium purification and production work being carried out at various sites.
He also coordinated development of techniques to industrially refine polonium for use with beryllium in the triggers of atomic weapons in the Manhattan Project's Dayton Project, part of which was conducted on the estate of his wife's family.

Monsanto

Monsanto CompanyCalgeneGenuity
The Dayton Project began in 1943 when Monsanto's Charles Allen Thomas was recruited by the Manhattan Project to coordinate the plutonium purification and production work being carried out at various sites.
To that end, Monsanto operated the Dayton Project, and later Mound Laboratories, and assisted in the development of the first nuclear weapons.

Miamisburg, Ohio

MiamisburgMiamisburg MoundMiami Township
It ran from 1943 to 1949, when the Mound Laboratories were completed in nearby Miamisburg, Ohio, and the work moved there.
The Dayton area had supported numerous secret operations for the War Department during World War II.

Polonium

Popolonium-210 210 Po
The Dayton Project was a research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.
In the United States, polonium was produced as part of the Manhattan Project's Dayton Project during World War II.

Mound Laboratories

Mound PlantMiamisburgMound for the Weapons Design Agency
It ran from 1943 to 1949, when the Mound Laboratories were completed in nearby Miamisburg, Ohio, and the work moved there.
The laboratory grew out of the World War II era Dayton Project (a site within the Manhattan Project) where the neutron generating triggers for the first plutonium bombs were developed.

Manhattan Project

atomic bomb projectatomic bombdevelopment of the atomic bomb
The Dayton Project was a research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.
This work with the chemistry and metallurgy of radioactive polonium was directed by Charles Allen Thomas of the Monsanto Company and became known as the Dayton Project.

United Theological Seminary

Bonebrake Theological SeminaryBonebrake SeminaryUnited Seminary
A laboratory site was found at 1601 W. First Street that had originally been constructed to house the Bonebrake Seminary.
In 1943, the United States government established a top-secret testing site at the Bonebrake Theological Seminary for the Dayton Project, which was part of the broader Manhattan Project, where research was conducted on the creation of an atomic bomb and polonium was produced that would eventually be used in the atomic bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945.

Project Y

Los AlamosLos Alamos Laboratory
Scientists at the Los Alamos Laboratory calculated that a plutonium bomb would require a neutron initiator.
This work with the chemistry and metallurgy of radioactive polonium was directed by Charles Allen Thomas of the Monsanto Company and became known as the Dayton Project.

Oakwood, Montgomery County, Ohio

OakwoodOakwood, Ohio
By 1944, space was running short, and Monsanto began negotiations to acquire the Runnymede Playhouse in the wealthy residential Dayton suburb of Oakwood.
During World War II, the Runnymede Playhouse in Oakwood hosted Unit IV of the Dayton Project.

Harold E. Talbott

Harold E. Talbott, Jr.H. E. TalbottHarold Elstner Talbott Jr.
The estate was owned by the Talbott Realty Company, which was controlled by Thomas's wife's family.
During World War II, the Runnymede Playhouse on the Talbott family estate in a residential neighborhood of Oakwood, Montgomery County, Ohio (a suburb of Dayton) hosted the Dayton Project (the part of the Manhattan Project involved in creating the neutron-generating triggers for the first atomic bombs from radioactive polonium).

George Koval

The fact that polonium was used as an initiator was classified until the 1960s, but George Koval, a technician with the Manhattan Project's Special Engineer Detachment, penetrated the Dayton Project as a spy for the Soviet Union.
Koval was transferred from Oak Ridge to a top-secret lab in Dayton, Ohio on June 27, 1945, where polonium initiators were fabricated.

Modulated neutron initiator

neutron initiatorinitiatorUrchin
Those working on the project were ultimately responsible for creating the polonium-based modulated neutron initiators which were used to begin the chain reactions in the atomic bombs.
The polonium used in the urchin initiator was created at Oak Ridge and then extracted and purified as part of the Dayton Project under the leadership of Charles Allen Thomas.

Pit (nuclear weapon)

pitplutonium corecore
In order to increase the efficiency of the explosion, the initiator had to emit a large number of neutrons in a few microseconds while the plutonium core was fully compressed.
Dayton Project

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The Dayton Project was a research and development project to produce polonium during World War II, as part of the larger Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bombs.

Plutonium

Puplutonium-239 239 Pu
The Dayton Project began in 1943 when Monsanto's Charles Allen Thomas was recruited by the Manhattan Project to coordinate the plutonium purification and production work being carried out at various sites.

Beryllium

Be 7 BeBe'''ryllium
The best-known neutron sources used radioactive polonium and beryllium, so Thomas undertook to produce polonium at Monsanto's laboratories in Dayton.

Lead dioxide

lead(IV) oxidePbO 2 lead peroxide
The Dayton Project developed techniques for extracting polonium from the lead dioxide ore in which it occurs naturally, and from bismuth targets that had been bombarded by neutrons in a nuclear reactor.

Bismuth

BiBi 3+ 83
The Dayton Project developed techniques for extracting polonium from the lead dioxide ore in which it occurs naturally, and from bismuth targets that had been bombarded by neutrons in a nuclear reactor.

Nuclear reactor

nuclear reactorsreactorreactors
The Dayton Project developed techniques for extracting polonium from the lead dioxide ore in which it occurs naturally, and from bismuth targets that had been bombarded by neutrons in a nuclear reactor.

Gun-type fission weapon

gun-typegun-type nuclear weaponearly nuclear weapons
Ultimately, polonium-based neutron initiators were used in both the gun-type Little Boy and the implosion-type Fat Man used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.

Little Boy

atomic bombHiroshima bombfirst atomic bomb
Ultimately, polonium-based neutron initiators were used in both the gun-type Little Boy and the implosion-type Fat Man used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.

Nuclear weapon design

implosion-type nuclear weaponimplosionphysics package
Ultimately, polonium-based neutron initiators were used in both the gun-type Little Boy and the implosion-type Fat Man used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.

Fat Man

Nagasakisecond atomic bomb19 kt
Ultimately, polonium-based neutron initiators were used in both the gun-type Little Boy and the implosion-type Fat Man used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

atomic bombing of HiroshimaHiroshimabombing of Hiroshima
Ultimately, polonium-based neutron initiators were used in both the gun-type Little Boy and the implosion-type Fat Man used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively.